In summary, low testosterone levels are linked to the presence of numerous cardiovascular risk factors. Testosterone treatment acts to improve some of these factors, but effects may vary according to pre- and post-treatment testosterone levels, as well as other factors. There is little data from trials specific to aging males. Appropriately-powered randomized controlled trials, with cardiovascular disease primary endpoints, are needed to clarify the situation, but in the meantime the balance of evidence is that testosterone has either neutral or beneficial effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease in men. It is particularly important to define the effect of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular disease in view of its potential use as an anti-anginal agent.
Some studies have looked at testosterone therapy and cognition. Although the findings weren’t definitive, there was some evidence of cognitive improvement. Other studies have shown that it improves mood. Testosterone therapy has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of osteoporosis and in increasing muscle bulk and strength. [See “Testosterone’s impact on brain, bone, and muscle,” above.]
Osteoporosis refers to pathological loss of bone density and strength. It is an important condition due to its prevalence and association with bone fractures; most commonly of the hip, vertebra and forearm. Men are relatively protected from the development of osteoporosis by a higher peak bone mass compared with women (Campion and Maricic 2003). Furthermore, women lose bone at an accelerated rate immediately following the menopause. Nevertheless, men start to lose bone mass during early adult life and experience an increase in the rate of bone loss with age (Scopacasa et al 2002). Women of a given age have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in comparison to men but the prevalence increases with age in both sexes. As a result, men have a lower incidence of osteoporotic fractures than women of a given age but the gap between the sexes narrows with advancing age (Chang et al 2004) and there is evidence that hip fractures in men are associated with greater mortality than in women (Campion and Maricic 2003).
Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5α-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than testosterone, so that its androgenic potency is about 5 times that of T.[118] The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.

Stick to protocols that stress large degrees of muscle mass and are moderate- to high-intensity. Additionally, more seasoned gym-goers may want to incorporate forced repetitions periodically into their programs, as testosterone increases have been observed with this type of training.14 Incorporating other post-failure training techniques such as dropsets or partials may similarly be associated with higher T production.


Increased testosterone can have an impact on body composition. Possible benefits include gains in lean muscle mass, reduced body fat and increased bone density. Testosterone inhibits uptake of triglycerides and increases lipid mobilization from adipose tissue, and the increase or decrease of testosterone will usually have an inverse effect on fat stores, with higher testosterone generally causing a decrease in body fat. "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism" published a study in 2007 that showed decreases in body fat and increases in lean mass in HIV-positive obese men given testosterone therapy. In 1989, a study of the effects of testosterone on muscle mass at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry suggests that increasing testosterone increases protein synthesis in muscles. Body composition changes from increased testosterone were also demonstrated in a 1999 study at the School of Exercise Science and Sports Management, Southern Cross University in Australia performed on male weight-training subjects, which showed increases in arm girth and body weight and decreased body fat following a 12-week cycle of testosterone enanthate.
I’m 56 and 5 years ago dropped to 270 with all the side effects listed for low test. After trying shots and not liking the roller coaster effect, I switched to gels. Androgel and Axiron had too low a dosage and far too messy. They need to not call them gels but liquids. If it pours like water it’s a liquid. My doctor recommended a compounding Pharmacy that made a cream and it was perfect. It had a click dispenser that looked like a deoderant that would pre-measure the dosage and I could rub it on my arms and shoulders or on my neck, really anywhere not covered in hair but the thinner the skin the better. It dried instantly so I could get dressed in a couple minutes. My totals never got out of the 400’s until I started the 150mg daily cream dosage, then they hovered around 700. The down side was Insurance didn’t cover it and I had to pay $50 a month vs free shots from the doctors office or $10 for the so-called gels. Bad news is it has now doubled in price due to new Federal production regs on compounding Pharms. Now, I am going back on the shots which I now have to buy the vile for $125 for 10 doses and have to take it to my doctor to administer it every 2wks while I am looking into bioidentical pellet implants.
I noticed that you say that those that have prostate cancer should not have testosterone replacement therapy, Why-in light of the studies that say that there is no danger from testosterone therapy to one that had/has prostate cancer? If this is your opinion do you have any suggestions as to what I should do about my symptoms? Does testosterone replacement therapy actually do anything?

Think: when you were teenager: you were active without thinking of ways to be active. When you start TRT, you want to be mobile/active (maybe again), don’t forget this when you stop TRT. You have to think of ways to incorporate activity into your routine or you get porky.When you cycled, walked everywhere as a teen you did this automatically. Without the hormone stimulus you must use your head and memories of what to do. here’s where the memory issue occurs.


Estrogen is important in men, but too high of a level has all sorts of negative consequences – ranging from heart attacks to prostate cancer (32 & 33). The balance between testosterone and estrogen (or estradiol) is critical for a man. If the ratio is out and estrogen starts to dominate you run into all sorts of issues – such as breast cell growth, prostate enlargement and of course lower testosterone.
Margaret, I’m on Trt, and my wife is 43 going through Peri- (early/pre) menopause. She started trying about a drop a day to see if her libido would improve, and it did, dramatically, and also her moods and patience. After about a month of feeling 30again, she started noticing lite facial hair developing, decreased breast size, and return of all previous symptoms. So she went off it. About a month later, she started St.JohnsWart, and everything improved tenfold. Now she feels 20 instead of just 30 on testosterone. She literally glows with smiles and energy, and has an extremely high libido. Maybe try that first. Good luck.
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Sexual dysfunction and low libido are among the most easily reversible symptoms of hypogonadism. Systematic reviews of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of testosterone in men, including older men (aged 60 years and over) and middle-aged men, with sexual dysfunction and hypogonadism have shown large favourable effects on libido and moderate effects on satisfaction with erectile function.1-5 In men who do not respond sufficiently to testosterone therapy alone, the combination of phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors and testosterone may be indicated, as there are suggestions that the combination may be synergistic.1
DAA (D-Aspartic Acid): When it comes to potent ingredients, D-Aspartic Acid is probably one the most potent ones currently available for boosting testosterone levels. This ingredient is used by sportsmen and bodybuilders alike to boost performance and gains, while it has also been shown to aid infertile men. DAA works with the brain, which stimulates the release of the luteinizing hormone that produces testosterone and also the secretion of growth hormone. Testosterone Synthesis also increases along with the other effects.

Vitamin D and zinc are both essential to testosterone production. A year-long study looked at the vitamin D and testosterone levels of 2299 men. It found that men with vitamin D levels above 30 nmol/L had more testosterone and lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG binds to hormones so your cells can’t use them, and if you have too much of it, your testosterone levels drop [8]. Men with vitamin D deficiency had lower testosterone and higher SHBG levels.
It seems like today it’s a badge of honor to train every day until exhaustion. The ethos is to push yourself harder and harder every day. If that’s your philosophy towards exercise, you might be sabotaging your testosterone levels (as well as your 20 Mile March). Studies have shown that overtraining can reduce testosterone levels significantly. Yes, it’s important to exercise hard, but it’s even more important to give your body rest so it can recuperate from the damage you inflicted upon it.
If you're completely inactive, or if you're completely burned out from overly intense training, neither one is going to help your T-levels. And when it comes to nutrition, eating enough—and getting adequate dietary fats—are both essential for healthy testosterone levels, and for general health.[2] In "All About Testosterone," Chris Lockwood, Ph.D., notes that extreme low-calorie dieting and fasting will hinder testosterone levels from staying at their peak, along with better-known villains like chronic stress.
Although some men believe that taking testosterone medications may help them feel younger and more vigorous as they age, few rigorous studies have examined testosterone therapy in men who have healthy testosterone levels. And some small studies have revealed mixed results. For example, in one study healthy men who took testosterone medications increased muscle mass but didn't gain strength.
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