Testosterone is the main hormone associated with muscle mass, strength gains, and libido. But that's far from the only thing it does in the body. As Chris Lockwood, Ph.D., explains in the article "All About Testosterone," it impacts everything from mood and memory to bone health—but yes, to be clear, it also makes muscles bigger and stronger, and helps increase endurance and athletic performance.


In the hepatic 17-ketosteroid pathway of testosterone metabolism, testosterone is converted in the liver by 5α-reductase and 5β-reductase into 5α-DHT and the inactive 5β-DHT, respectively.[1][155] Then, 5α-DHT and 5β-DHT are converted by 3α-HSD into 3α-androstanediol and 3α-etiocholanediol, respectively.[1][155] Subsequently, 3α-androstanediol and 3α-etiocholanediol are converted by 17β-HSD into androsterone and etiocholanolone, which is followed by their conjugation and excretion.[1][155] 3β-Androstanediol and 3β-etiocholanediol can also be formed in this pathway when 5α-DHT and 5β-DHT are acted upon by 3β-HSD instead of 3α-HSD, respectively, and they can then be transformed into epiandrosterone and epietiocholanolone, respectively.[157][158] A small portion of approximately 3% of testosterone is reversibly converted in the liver into androstenedione by 17β-HSD.[156]
It is hard to know how many men among us have TD, although data suggest that overall about 2.1% (about 2 men in every 100) may have TD. As few as 1% of younger men may have TD, while as many as 50% of men over 80 years old may have TD. People who study the condition often use different cut-off points for the numbers, so you may hear different numbers being stated.
Epidemiological studies suggest that many significant clinical findings and important disease states are linked to low testosterone levels. These include osteoporosis (Campion and Maricic 2003), Alzheimer’s disease (Moffat et al 2004), frailty, obesity (Svartberg, von Muhlen, Sundsfjord et al 2004), diabetes (Barrett-Connor 1992), hypercholesterolemia (Haffner et al 1993; Van Pottelbergh et al 2003), hypertension (Phillips et al 1993), cardiac failure (Tappler and Katz 1979; Kontoleon et al 2003) and ischemic heart disease (Barrett-Connor and Khaw 1988). The extent to which testosterone deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of these conditions, or to which testosterone supplementation could be useful in their treatment is an area of great interest with many unanswered questions.
Findings that improvements in serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance or glycemic control, in men treated with testosterone are accompanied by reduced measures of central obesity, are in line with other studies showing a specific effect of testosterone in reducing central or visceral obesity (Rebuffe-Scrive et al 1991; Marin, Holmang et al 1992). Furthermore, studies that have shown neutral effects of testosterone on glucose metabolism have not measured (Corrales et al 2004), or shown neutral effects (Lee et al 2005) (Tripathy et al 1998; Bhasin et al 2005) on central obesity. Given the known association of visceral obesity with insulin resistance, it is possible that testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men acts to improve insulin resistance and diabetes through an effect in reducing central obesity. This effect can be explained by the action of testosterone in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and thereby reducing triglyceride uptake into adipocytes (Sorva et al 1988), an action which seems to occur preferentially in visceral fat (Marin et al 1995; Marin et al 1996). Visceral fat is thought to be more responsive to hormonal changes due to a greater concentration of androgen receptors and increased vascularity compared with subcutaneous fat (Bjorntorp 1996). Further explanation of the links between hypogonadism and obesity is offered by the hypogonadal-obesity-adipocytokine cycle hypothesis (see Figure 1). In this model, increases in body fat lead to increases in aromatase levels, in addition to insulin resistance, adverse lipid profiles and increased leptin levels. Increased action of aromatase in metabolizing testosterone to estrogen, reduces testosterone levels which induces further accumulation of visceral fat. Higher leptin levels and possibly other factors, act at the pituitary to suppress gonadotrophin release and exacerbate hypogonadism (Cohen 1999; Kapoor et al 2005). Leptin has also been shown to reduce testosterone secretion from rodent testes in vitro (Tena-Sempere et al 1999). A full review of the relationship between testosterone, insulin resistance and diabetes can be found elsewhere (Kapoor et al 2005; Jones 2007).
I can report that I saw decreased body fat during my three-month testosterone experiment. I started off with 18% body fat and ended the experiment with 12% body fat. I almost have a six-pack! This is the leanest I’ve ever been in my entire life. The funny thing is, I wasn’t even trying to shed body fat. It just happened. All hail, mighty testosterone!
One of the few testosterone boosters on the market to feature Eurycoma Longifolia, a patented ingredient that was developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for the treatment of sexual dysfunction and male fertility, Tongkat Ali supports increased sex drive through multiple pathways, including boosting one’s free testosterone levels. Great as a standalone testosterone booster and a staple in many people’s post cycle after an anabolic cycle.

Low testosterone levels have a dramatic effect on emotional state. The American Academy of Family Physicians lists depression, impaired cognition and increased fatigue as symptoms of low testosterone production, or hypogonadism. Testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadal men has successfully reduced negative moods relating to fatigue and depression while increasing feelings of self-esteem. Increasing testosterone in eugonadal men has also shown positive emotional benefits such as increased feelings of self-esteem and reduction of fatigue. The intensity of these benefits is dependent on dosage; a wide body of literature on testosterone increase has shown that at higher dosage aggression, and aggressive response, can become pronounced.

Hi Douglas, this is a great question, thanks for reaching out. Apart from having a solid training plan that’s suited to your current level of fitness, and goals, you can also use a quality Testosterone Booster which could give you the lift you need to get back into the gym. If you find it difficult to swallow tablets, you can always empty the capsule into a glass of water, juice, or coffee to make it easier to take.

TestoRush is a decent natural testosterone booster with decent ingredients. It’s not nearly as potent as some other higher ranked supplements on this site, and, in reading every review we could find from customers, it appears there’s some negativity towards the company. Read this full TestoRush review and find out how it measures up to other boosters we’ve reviewed. READ THE REVIEW
Testosterone levels naturally rise in response to sexual arousal and activity. Men with higher levels of testosterone usually have greater sexual activity. Older men need more testosterone for libido and erectile function. But it’s important to note that erectile dysfunction is often due to other conditions or medications rather than low testosterone levels.
Let me start out by saying that I didn't notice anything for about the first 10 days. After week 2, I had moderate energy increases buy by far the most noticeable difference for me was in the bedroom. After using this product for over a moth now, I normally run out of energy before I run out of "stamina". This will be a permanent regimen for my daily supplements from now on. I take 4 a day. 2 in the morning and 2 about 5pm. I thought about lowering the dosage to see if it had the same effect, but for the price, why? LOL.
“Our hypothesis was that testosterone would be good for the coronary arteries because we thought that by repleting testosterone to healthy levels there would be an improvement in the cholesterol panel and atherosclerosis burden. But what we found was the opposite, that atherosclerosis actually progresses faster under the influence of testosterone.”

While researchers in Brisbane, Australia, found that while Testofen (“a standardized [fenugreek] extract and mineral formulation”) significantly improved the sexual arousal, orgasm, and the general quality of life of participants, it did not remarkably increase testosterone above normal levels. Participants who took Testofen were more satisfied with their energy, well-being, and muscle strength than those who took the placebo.

Smith, R. P., Khanna, A., Coward, R. M., Rajanahally, S., Kovac, J. R., Gonzales, M. A., & Lipshultz, L. I. (2013, September). Factors influencing patient decisions to initiate and discontinue subcutaneous testosterone pellets (Testopel) for treatment of hypogonadism [Abstract]. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(9), 2326–2333. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23859250

Of course, testosterone’s primary function is to bring about secondary sexual characteristics in men. A healthy dose of testosterone is shown to treat conditions such as impotence. Men with fertility issues benefit from increased levels of testosterone in the body. The aging process slows down the rate of testosterone production by the adrenals and testes. It is irreversible and one of the only means to mediate the effects of low testosterone concentration is to include testosterone boosting agents in your regimen.
In 1927, the University of Chicago's Professor of Physiologic Chemistry, Fred C. Koch, established easy access to a large source of bovine testicles — the Chicago stockyards — and recruited students willing to endure the tedious work of extracting their isolates. In that year, Koch and his student, Lemuel McGee, derived 20 mg of a substance from a supply of 40 pounds of bovine testicles that, when administered to castrated roosters, pigs and rats, remasculinized them.[183] The group of Ernst Laqueur at the University of Amsterdam purified testosterone from bovine testicles in a similar manner in 1934, but isolation of the hormone from animal tissues in amounts permitting serious study in humans was not feasible until three European pharmaceutical giants—Schering (Berlin, Germany), Organon (Oss, Netherlands) and Ciba (Basel, Switzerland)—began full-scale steroid research and development programs in the 1930s.
A study in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition that showed drops in cholesterol levels also highlighted the benefits of Fenugreek in controlling glucose levels (this is in fact what the trial was intended to test). When you eat, your glucose levels spike. Fenugreek helps stimulate insulin release to slow down the absorption of sugars in your intestinal tract. Fenugreek might help control blood sugar levels in diabetics.  Furthermore, high glucose levels create a poor environment for testosterone production.  This is why Tim Ferris, in his testosterone diet, advises against consuming sweets and simple starches when you are trying to increase T levels.

These berries are known to improve your overall stamina and mood. But that’s not all, they also keep temperatures in the scrotum at the optimum level. The scrotum contains the testes which produce sperm. Higher temperatures tend to hamper the sperm production and decrease the volume that is released in a man’s ejaculate. They also promote sperm production by improving blood circulation and protecting against free radical damage.


I have been on TRT for over 8 years now. I feel GREAT! I read all these studies, hear in the news, and see all these dumb lawsuit commercials about testosterone causing cardiovascular events, blood clots and many other things. If anyone takes the time to do the due diligence and read the studies the picture becomes very clear. Unless you monitor all the other hormones, specifically, Estradiol, DHT, Pregenolone, Total Testosterone, Free Direct Testosterone, and DHEAS you are playing a deadly game. The reason is you must give something to control the pathways of T conversion into estradiol and or DHT. The vast majority of the studies used nothing to control those pathways and they gave men way, way more T than they needed to start with. They also gave forms of T that are not acceptable. Especially the oral version.
More recently, a study from 2015 noted that consuming 600mg daily of standardized fenugreek extract for eight weeks increased free testosterone levels compared to placebo. The test group also experience an increase the the number of repetitions the could perform in the leg press before reaching failure. And, to top it off, subjects receiving the fenugreek supplement dropped body fat without losing strength.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2019, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions.
Camacho EM1, Huhtaniemi IT, O'Neill TW, Finn JD, Pye SR, Lee DM, Tajar A, Bartfai G, Boonen S, Casanueva FF, Forti G, Giwercman A, Han TS, Kula K, Keevil B, Lean ME, Pendleton N, Punab M, Vanderschueren D, Wu FC; EMAS Group. “Age-associated changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function in middle-aged and older men are modified by weight change and lifestyle factors: longitudinal results from the European Male Ageing Study.” Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Feb 20;168(3):445-55. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0890. Print 2013 Mar.
Everytime you add Testosterone to your system, be it naturally through producing in the testis, injected, oral, or dermal you will receive a spike in your blood levels. Estrogen is mainly created in men by an action of an enzyme called Aromatase. Aromatase floats around and binds to Testosterone and converts it to Estrogen. When you spike your T your E will follow in this way. The obvious and detrimental effects to many of the already estrogen dominant hypogonadal men will be inappropriate over stimulation of the estrogen receptors in the body. Gynecomastia, fluid retention, weight gain, brain fog, erratic emotions, depression, ect. Higher levels of Estrogen cause SHBG to be created. SHBG binds to Testosterone and transports it to the liver for disposal. On top of this Estrogen can bind to your androgen receptors causing Testosterone to float around with no where to go. If you are taking shots or gel or cream and feel little to no effect even though it’s technically raised your T blood ranges, you now have an multiple answers for why you little to nothing or feel even worse. This has been known for years that you must be prepared to control Estrogen. An Aromatase Inhibitor (AI) or anti estrogen medication (Clomiphene, Tamoxifen) is needed to stop the estrogen from getting out of control. By taking an Aromatase inhibitor and monitoring your E2 levels you can easily control Estrogen, Aromatase, and SHBG from getting out of hand and free up those blocked androgen receptors so you can now reap the benefits of elevating T to a healthy level. If your Doctor is not testing your E2(aka Estrogen, Estradiol) levels before and during talks and administration of TRT or will never prescribe an AI then you shouldn’t be following his advice at all and will be harmed by Testosterone usage. This may sound complicated but in the end it’s simple. Elevate Testosterone. Control Estrogen. Only two medications needed. Don’t settle.
Lets touch on these individually. Gluten has been shown to increase prolactin levels in male mice (48 & 49). Increased prolactin levels in males leads to all sorts of horrible things: Man Boobs (50), High inflammation (51), and most importantly, higher prolactin levels have been shown to be testosterone lowering and lead to shrinking of the testicle (52).

The diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism requires the combination of low serum testosterone levels with symptoms of hypogonadism. Questionnaires are available which check for the symptoms of hypogonadism. These have been validated for the assessment of aging patients with hypogonadism (Morley et al 2000; Moore et al 2004) but have a low specificity. In view of the overlap in symptoms between hypogonadism, aging and other medical conditions it is wise to use a formal method of symptom assessment which can be used to monitor the effects of testosterone replacement.


For years, the recommendation has been to get a testosterone value early in the morning because levels start to drop after 10 or 11 a.m. But the data behind that recommendation were drawn from healthy young men. Two recent studies showed little change in blood testosterone levels in men 40 and older over the course of the day. One reported no change in average testosterone until after 2 p.m. Between 2 and 6 p.m., it went down by 13%, a modest amount, and probably not enough to influence diagnosis. Most guidelines still say it’s important to do the test in the morning, but for men 40 and above, it probably doesn’t matter much, as long as they get their blood drawn before 5 or 6 p.m.
Magnesium comes with a strict upper cap. Excess magnesium is hard on your kidneys, and can lead to kidney failure. The NIH recommends that men consume 400-420 mg of magnesium daily, but that they should not exceed 350 mg of supplemental magnesium per day. Because while it’s rare for people to chronically overdose on magnesium through diet (you’d have to eat a lot of almonds and spinach, for example), overdose by supplement is far more common.
Vitamin D, a steroid hormone, is essential for the healthy development of the nucleus of the sperm cell, and helps maintain semen quality and sperm count. Vitamin D also increases levels of testosterone, which may boost libido. In one study, overweight men who were given vitamin D supplements had a significant increase in testosterone levels after one year.5
You may find this hard to believe, but some common breakfast foods like Kellogg’s corn flakes and Graham crackers were invented 100 years ago to lower male libido. Kellogg and Graham believed that male sexual desire was the root of society’s problems, so they set out to make bland foods that would take away libido (this is absolutely true; look it up). That low fat, grain-based thing absolutely works wonders for lowering testosterone.
Men's levels of testosterone, a hormone known to affect men's mating behaviour, changes depending on whether they are exposed to an ovulating or nonovulating woman's body odour. Men who are exposed to scents of ovulating women maintained a stable testosterone level that was higher than the testosterone level of men exposed to nonovulation cues. Testosterone levels and sexual arousal in men are heavily aware of hormone cycles in females.[46] This may be linked to the ovulatory shift hypothesis,[47] where males are adapted to respond to the ovulation cycles of females by sensing when they are most fertile and whereby females look for preferred male mates when they are the most fertile; both actions may be driven by hormones.
Research shows that bone density increases with testosterone treatment as long as the dose is high enough. on the effect of testosterone on bone density found increases in spinal and hip bone density. Another of females transitioning into males found that testosterone increased bone mineral density. But it’s unknown if testosterone can help with reducing fracture risk.

Eggs often come up in reproductive health discussion. This time we’re talking about dietary eggs, as in omelets, and the role they play in boosting testosterone. The hormone boost from eggs comes primarily from the yolks, which are rich in dietary cholesterol, mono- and saturated fats—nutrients once demonized by health experts that have since proven to positively influence waistlines and hormone-health.
Testosterone boosters are supplementary substances that can be used for the purpose of increasing testosterone levels in the blood. This study aimed to evaluate the side effects and health risks of testosterone boosters among athletes. A sportsman came to the King Saud Hospital, Unaizah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, suffering from abdominal pain. The attending doctor requested general laboratory tests. He admitted to having consumed two courses of a testosterone booster over a period of 42 days following the instructions of the manufacturer. In total, the athlete in question consumed several courses, twice before the abdominal pain started and twice after it subsided. The blood tests and reports suggested that the commercial product consumed might negatively affect several hepatic functions and resulted in slightly increased testosterone concentrations after the fourth course. In conclusion, administration of testosterone booster products, although obtained from trusted sources, may still present some health risks. Further studies with large sample size and for a long period need to be done to confirm the current findings.
Treatment is not necessary if your levels fall within the normal range. Testosterone replacement therapy is primarily beneficial for men with low testosterone levels. Don’t purchase testosterone without a prescription. See your doctor if you think you might have low levels of testosterone. A blood test can determine your testosterone levels and help diagnose underlying conditions.
If you think you may have Low T symptoms or are suffering from Andropause (Hypogonadism), don't hesitate to contact a Hormone Therapy Physician at one of our male hormone replacement clinics today. You can get tested for Low T with a fast, easy lab test and start treatment right away with a prescription. Find a Testosterone Doctor & Clinics for hormone testing, diagnoses and treatment.
Testosterone levels peak by early adulthood and drop as you age—about 1% to 2% a year beginning in the 40s. As men reach their 50s and beyond, this may lead to signs and symptoms, such as impotence or changes in sexual desire, depression or anxiety, reduced muscle mass, less energy, weight gain, anemia, and hot flashes. While falling testosterone levels are a normal part of aging, certain conditions can hasten the decline. These include:
Testosterone makes you angry. This is probably the most common myth about T. The reality is that there’s no concrete evidence that high testosterone levels cause anger and violent outbursts. In fact, the opposite might be true; low testosterone, not high T, is what causes anger and irritability in men. As discussed above, having low T levels has been linked to depression in men and it just so happens that two of the primary symptoms of depression in men are increased angry outbursts and irritability. So if you’re chronically angry, you might be depressed, and you might be depressed because you have low T. As I mentioned above, I became less moody and irritable during my experiment, which I attribute to the boost in my testosterone levels.

Stress less – I know this is easier said than done but if you can reduce your stress levels it will help your testosterone production. This is because stress makes your body produce cortisol which has many negative effects on the body including being a testosterone killer. Try meditating, exercising, deep breathing and other lifestyle changes to keep stress down and cortisol in check.
Natural remedies for treating erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction has many causes, can affect any male, and is often distressing? Some people advocate several different natural remedies, mostly herbs and other plants. Here, we look at their merits and side effects, plus lifestyle changes, and alternative therapies that may bring relief for erectile dysfunction. Read now
×