The IOM report estimated that a study of whether there is an increased risk of prostate cancer in men on testosterone therapy might require following 5,000 men for three to five years. Before launching such an endeavor, the report recommended more firmly establishing the effectiveness of testosterone-replacement therapy, saying that studies of long-term risks and benefits should be conducted only after short-term efficacy has been proven. That means the male equivalent of the WHI remains far off.

One thing that is often overlooked when it comes to testosterone boosters is the dosing. Test boosters aren’t like other supplements where you can just take the one dosing per day and forget about until the next day. As with any supplement, it only stays in your system for 4-8 hours. This means you need to be taking more than one dose per day. 2 doses are better but it still is not enough. If you want to keep your test levels up all day you will need to be taking at least 3 and preferably 4 doses per day to keep your testosterone levels high throughout the day and to keep them from dropping between doses. You should also be sure to take them every day and try to not miss any doses to get the most out of them.


There are many Supplements: Zinc for starters about 1/3 of Men have to low Zinc. Make shure you get a good chemical form no oxides best are chelates or citrates. Then there is Arginin and L-Citrullin two amino acids that help Blood flow basacly natural viagra. And then there are things like maca(a plant that you can get in powder form) that hightens libido but not like zinc it doesnt highten the testosteron level. My dad takes the combo of these 3 things kosts you about 30-60$ per Month. Dont be lazy do research on the stuff to make shure you get right dosages and good quality Sups
I started with the shots. Wowee! the effect was like night and day. For two years I was like a teenager. But then I noticed some REALLY risky (Health) behavior ( and memory gaps) and bad decisions with long-term implications(i.e judgement). So I tried stopping TRT (four years on the pumps),within four months, mood swings like menopause: snarly with co workers (not good in nursing), grumpy with everyone, switch from jovial to downcast in an instant (I’m male). Had to go back on and do an 18 mth taper, coupled with exercise. No TRT, makes exercise SO hard to do. Muscles seem so much more aware of stiffness.
A number of research groups have tried to further define the relationship of testosterone and body composition by artificial alteration of testosterone levels in eugonadal populations. Induction of a hypogonadal state in healthy men (Mauras et al 1998) or men with prostate cancer (Smith et al 2001) using a gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogue was shown to produce increases in fat mass and decreased fat free mass. Another experimental approach in healthy men featured suppression of endogenous testosterone production with a GnRH analogue, followed by treatment with different doses of weekly intramuscular testosterone esters for 20 weeks. Initially the experiments involved men aged 18–35 years (Bhasin et al 2001) but subsequently the study was repeated with a similar protocol in men aged 60–75 years (Bhasin et al 2005). The different doses given were shown to produce a range of serum concentrations from subphysiological to supraphysiological (Bhasin et al 2001). A given testosterone dose produced higher serum concentrations of testosterone in the older age group (Bhasin et al 2005). Subphysiological dosing of testosterone produced a gain in fat mass and loss of fat free mass during the study. There were sequential decreases in fat mass and increases in fat free mass with each increase of testosterone dose. These changes in body composition were seen in physiological and supraphysiological treatment doses. The trend was similar in younger versus older men but the gain of fat mass at the lowest testosterone dose was less prominent in older patients (Bhasin et al 2001; Bhasin et al 2005). With regard to muscle function, the investigators showed dose dependent increases in leg strength and power with testosterone treatment in young and older men but there was no improvement in fatigability (Storer et al 2003; Bhasin et al 2005).
This is one of the most controversial recommendations I make, but it shouldn’t be. It’s no different than using thyroid medication. If your levels are low, and the other techniques here don’t work, use TRT. You will like your life again. If your levels are low, bioidentical testosterone will make you live longer and better, provided you use it right.
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When it comes to testosterone in the body, most of it is bound testosterone. This means it is testosterone that is bound to either the sex hormone globulin or the protein albumin. The problem is this bound up testosterone goes largely unused by the body and does nothing for you in its bound state. It is the free testosterone that is the testosterone you feel and that makes you manly, this is free flowing in your veins and not bound to anything. This is the kind of testosterone you want, the more the better.
For facts sake I am 51yr old male and I am fat. I do have a large and muscular fat, but I also have a good amount of at on top of that. My body shape is not the typical huge “beer belly” gut that is hard and dangerous, rather, I am fat all over proportionally, but still considered obese. The fat on my body and around my middle is quite soft compared to male friends who have those large and hard bellies. Still, my doctor and reading indicate that fat has an effect on T potentially lowering the overall level that my T would be if I lost a good amount of that fat.
Tongkat ali (a.k.a. Longjack, a.k.a. Eurycoma Longifolia) is a foundational compound of Ayurveda, commonly used as an aphrodisiac. Similar to DHEA, longjack has been found to be effective in both men and women for improving libido, total and free testosterone concentrations as well as muscle mass and strength in men and women! And, unlike many of the other old world herbs commonly touted as natural testosterone boosters, longjack actually has a fair amount of human research denoting its benefits.
Your diet is the best source of zinc; along with protein-rich foods like meats and fish, other good dietary sources of zinc include raw milk, raw cheese, beans, and yogurt or kefir made from raw milk. It can be difficult to obtain enough dietary zinc if you're a vegetarian, and also for meat-eaters as well, largely because of conventional farming methods that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. These chemicals deplete the soil of nutrients ... nutrients like zinc that must be absorbed by plants in order to be passed on to you.
Before taking any supplements, at either end of the spectrum, you need to check whether it’s low testosterone that is actually causing the problem. Taking something that you don’t need could potentially cause irreversible issues. For that reason, steroid hormones like DHEA should never be prescribed without having blood tests first. Roked also recommends regular blood monitoring to make sure you’re taking the correct dosage.

In the 2nd study, short-term testosterone treatment in older men significantly increased noncalcified coronary artery plaque volumes, possibly raising their risk of cardiovascular (CV) events,2 according to Matthew J. Budoff, MD, a professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute in Torrance, California, and colleagues. 
Another benefit of the increased muscle mass was that I got stronger. My bench press, squat, and deadlift all enjoyed significant gains during my experiment. It’s great to be able to bench press 225 pounds again for 5 sets of 5 like I used to in high school, and I’m on track to beat my maxes on the bench and squat that my 18-year-old self set over 12 years ago.
Testosterone, historically believed to be important only for male sexual function, has over the past decades transformed from niche hormone to multi-system player.22 There is increasing recognition of the harmful consequences of hypogonadism (also known as testosterone deficiency) wide spectrum of beneficial health effects of testosterone therapy and.23, 24
Hallie Levine is an award-winning magazine and freelance writer who contributes to Consumer Reports on health and fitness topics. Her work has been published in Health, Prevention, Reader's Digest, and Parents, among others. She's a mom to three kids and a fat but feisty black Labrador retriever named Ivry. In her (nonexistent) spare time, she likes to read, swim, and run marathons.
Hello..was prescribe andro gel 1.62 for about 2 years..borderline low..At time 54 year old now 57..a year ago switched doctors..new doctor would not prescribe andro gel..without me stopping use and then being checked after 6 months..it’s been a year..by the way felt great while on it much more energy. .did notice some hair receding. .but felt stronger..my question is..by using andro gel ..did I turn off my body’s natural ability to make testosterone as using andro gel..if so what do I need to do too turn my body on if my doctor does not renew therapy. .by way the past without andro gel…little too no energy..weight gain of 40 lbs..especially around the belly..thank you for your time and reply
Male sex characteristics greatly depend on testosterone synthesis in your body. If you keep the levels of this hormone normal, you will prevent sexual potency issues. Accordingly, the elevation of testosterone levels helps combat the impairment of erectile function. The levels of this hormone also affect male fertility. If these levels grow, fertility improves. Aging has a negative impact on testosterone secretion. Such hormonal imbalance is inevitable and permanent. But it’s still possible to positively change the situation and stimulate hormone production by using the high-quality testosterone boosters.
Whether you are currently on a plateau or you are looking to obtain more energy in life and in the gym this test booster and its full coverage blend of natural extracts is designed to support your body’s anabolic potential without compromising natural production. Test Booster 1.0 works with your body to promote elevations in natural test levels; helping to support muscle density, a balanced metabolism, and insane natural energy levels.

My preference is to start men on testosterone, for a couple of reasons. First, if a man has successful return of his own erections, it’s like a home run for him. He doesn’t have to take a pill in anticipation of having sex. He can have sex whenever he wants. Second, the benefits of testosterone-replacement therapy often go way beyond erectile dysfunction. That may be what brought the patient into the office originally, but then he comes back saying how much better he feels in general, how much more energetic and motivated he is, how his drives on the golf course seem to be going farther, and how his mood is better.

if you’re a physician, you’re the real one who’s playing doctor. Stop prescribing low T treatment and let your patients go to a real doctor and not continue suffering. A simple picture of how hormones are created and their pathways will make you understand that E follows T, when we increase T, E2 will follow which negates all the positive effects of treatment. Without understanding this, you better leave the patient alone.


When we face stress, our adrenal glands secrete cortisol to prepare our bodies and minds to handle the stressful situation — the primal fight-or-flight response. In small dosages, cortisol is fine and even useful, but elevated cortisol levels for prolonged periods can do some serious damage to our bodies and minds. One area that seems to take a hit when cortisol is high is our testosterone levels. Several studies have shown a link between cortisol and testosterone. When cortisol levels are high, testosterone levels are low; and when testosterone levels are high, cortisol levels are low.
*IMPORTANT TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT WARNING: Who Should Not Enroll in Testosterone Replacement Therapy? Men who have or had prostate cancer or breast cancer should not take testosterone replacement therapy. All men considering treatment should undergo a thorough prostate cancer screening prior to starting any therapy program with a rectal exam and PSA test. *Men who have or have had cardiovascular disease, or are at risk for coronary disease, or have had a history of heart disease may not be candidates for testosterone treatment. Blood testing, thorough physical examination and careful screening by your physician is absolutely essential before considering a hormone therapy program of any kind. Always discuss the potential benefits, uses, side effects and risks of prescription hormones and steroid drugs with your treating physician. Hormone Treatment is for medically qualified candidates only. The FDA has cautions about using testosterone products for low testosterone due to aging; requires labeling change to inform of possible increased risk of heart attack and stroke with use - FDA Testosterone Safety Update
“We need carbs, fats, and proteins to have optimal T levels,” says Howse. A healthy amount of carbs, for example, keeps cortisol levels low (more on why this is important to come). Meanwhile, dietary fats produce cholesterol, which our body can later convert into testosterone. And, finally, protein supports body composition by enhancing muscle repair and growth and increasing satiety.

Your first step should be to see your doctor. If you think you have low testosterone, we cannot stress enough that you should proceed with caution and talk to a medical professional — taking a booster can definitely do more harm than good. Low testosterone can be a symptom of more serious problems, like a pituitary disorder or a side-effect of medication, and a booster can mask the root cause. A doctor will be able to evaluate your testosterone levels with a simple blood test, and if you both decide a booster is the way to go, give the ingredients of any supplement a once-over to make sure that they’re not at risk of making your personal health situation worse.


This common kitchen spice can actually play a role in testosterone production.  It has been said that through supplementing with ginger, that users have the ability to not only increase testosterone production naturally, but also improve sexual function and drive, improve sperm health, as well as increasing sperm count.  This is great for infertile men as well as those looking for another avenue when it comes to boosting natural testosterone levels.  
The unsexy truth is that increasing T naturally simply comes down to making some long-term changes in your diet and lifestyle. As you’ll see, what I did to increase T largely boils down to eating better, exercising smarter, and getting more sleep. That’s pretty much it. But as with most things in life, the devil is in the details, so I’ll share with you exactly what I did and provide research that explains why the things I did helped boost my testosterone.
In this article, testosterone-replacement therapy refers to the treatment of hypogonadism with exogenous testosterone — testosterone that is manufactured outside the body. Depending on the formulation, treatment can cause skin irritation, breast enlargement and tenderness, sleep apnea, acne, reduced sperm count, increased red blood cell count, and other side effects.
In the early days of testosterone boosters, the ingredients used were not placed or based on clinical trials that proved the effectiveness of each of them. Most testosterone boosters were compiled with ingredients that were coming from the mouth of a bro scientist, so to speak. These ingredients had no real evidence to back their effects on testosterone production.
Another study in 2015 by Melville and friends gave subjects either three or six grams of DAA per day for a 14 days (2 weeks). Researchers noted that the 3g dose of D-aspartic acid did not result in any meaningful changes in testosterone levels (or any other anabolic hormones for that matter).[3] However, the group of men receiving 6g per day experienced a significant reduction in both total testosterone and free testosterone levels, with no concurrent change in other hormones tested.[3]
Clinical trials of the effect of testosterone on glucose metabolism in men have occurred in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. Data specific to aging males is not available. A series of studies investigated the effects of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone given for 6 weeks or 3 months to middle aged, non-diabetic obese men (Marin, Holmang et al 1992; Marin, Krotkiewski et al 1992; Marin et al 1993). It was found that physiological treatment doses led to improved insulin resistance, as measured by the gold standard technique using a euglycemic clamp and/or serum glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance test. These improvements were associated with decreased central obesity, measured by computered tomography (CT) or waist-hip ratio, without reduced total fat mass. Insulin resistance improved more with testosterone than dihydrotestosterone treatment and beneficial effects were greater in men with lower baseline testosterone levels. Increasing testosterone levels into the supraphysiological range lead to decreased glucose tolerance.
The reliable measurement of serum free testosterone requires equilibrium dialysis. This is not appropriate for clinical use as it is very time consuming and therefore expensive. The amount of bioavailable testosterone can be measured as a percentage of the total testosterone after precipitation of the SHBG bound fraction using ammonium sulphate. The bioavailable testosterone is then calculated from the total testosterone level. This method has an excellent correlation with free testosterone (Tremblay and Dube 1974) but is not widely available for clinical use. In most clinical situations the available tests are total testosterone and SHBG which are both easily and reliably measured. Total testosterone is appropriate for the diagnosis of overt male hypogonadism where testosterone levels are very low and also in excluding hypogonadism in patients with normal/high-normal testosterone levels. With increasing age, a greater number of men have total testosterone levels just below the normal range or in the low-normal range. In these patients total testosterone can be an unreliable indicator of hypogonadal status. There are a number of formulae that calculate an estimated bioavailable or free testosterone level using the SHBG and total testosterone levels. Some of these have been shown to correlate well with laboratory measures and there is evidence that they more reliably indicate hypogonadism than total testosterone in cases of borderline biochemical hypogonadism (Vermeulen et al 1971; Morris et al 2004). It is important that such tests are validated for use in patient populations relevant to the patient under consideration.
Some people can get away with more of a barebones approach to boosting their testosterone levels.  MET-Rx Tribulus 750 has been around for years and has been used by many to help get their testosterone levels back within the normal range.  The product has been laboratory tested and has been deemed safe for use by athletes, bodybuilders, and gym rats alike.

There are pills in the United States for testosterone supplementation, but their use is strongly discouraged because they cause significant liver toxicity. A safe oral formulation called testosterone undecanoate is available in Canada and in Europe, but not in the United States. What’s quite exciting is that an injectable version of testosterone undecanoate (Nebido) was submitted to the FDA for approval in August 2007. (It’s already approved in many other countries.) It lasts for 12 weeks, so a patient could come in and get a shot about four times a year. [Editor’s note: In December 2009, the brand name of the drug in the United States was changed to Aveed. As of January 2011, it was still awaiting FDA approval.]
It is hard to know how many men among us have TD, although data suggest that overall about 2.1% (about 2 men in every 100) may have TD. As few as 1% of younger men may have TD, while as many as 50% of men over 80 years old may have TD. People who study the condition often use different cut-off points for the numbers, so you may hear different numbers being stated.
Before taking any supplements, at either end of the spectrum, you need to check whether it’s low testosterone that is actually causing the problem. Taking something that you don’t need could potentially cause irreversible issues. For that reason, steroid hormones like DHEA should never be prescribed without having blood tests first. Roked also recommends regular blood monitoring to make sure you’re taking the correct dosage.

This is the best BCAA supplement ever created.  You see this is not your typical BCAA supplement that all the other supplement companies sell.  Those products are simply free-form amino acids made by some Chinese manufacturer and packaged in the United States.  Free form amino acid supplements have been around since the 1980’s and they have never been proven to be helpful in building muscle mass.  In fact after whey protein came out in the 90’s it really made BCAA amino acids obsolete because whey protein contains over 30% BCAA.  If you want more BCAA’s simply use another scoop of whey protein instead of BCAA powder.  Its cheaper, tastes better, and contains plenty of BCAA plus all the other amino acids.  Ok so now that I have convinced you that free form BCAA’s supplements are pretty much worthless let me tell you about our new Advanced BCAA’s.


There are many Supplements: Zinc for starters about 1/3 of Men have to low Zinc. Make shure you get a good chemical form no oxides best are chelates or citrates. Then there is Arginin and L-Citrullin two amino acids that help Blood flow basacly natural viagra. And then there are things like maca(a plant that you can get in powder form) that hightens libido but not like zinc it doesnt highten the testosteron level. My dad takes the combo of these 3 things kosts you about 30-60$ per Month. Dont be lazy do research on the stuff to make shure you get right dosages and good quality Sups


This study [9] also reported significantly increased glutathione levels. Glutathion has been shown to have a synergetic effect with l-citrulline as their combination further increases nitrate and nitrite levels and contributes to the sustained release of NO. While some previous studies have indicated that glutathione stimulates L-arginine turnover and increases nitric oxide synthase (NOS).
The hormone testosterone plays a major role in a man’s life. “We’re literally better at who we are if our T levels are thriving,” says Chad Howse, co-author of The Man Diet: A Proven Guide to More Energy, Increased Virility, and Higher Testosterone Levels. T affects just about everything, from a man’s appearance to his physical and emotional health.
Lean beef, chicken, fish, and eggs are some of your options. Tofu, nuts, and seeds have protein, too. Try to get about 5 to 6 ounces per day, although the ideal amount for you depends on your age, sex, and how active you are. When you don't eat enough of these foods, your body makes more of a substance that binds with testosterone, leaving you with less T available to do its job.
Ashwagandha is shown to be effective at reducing cortisol which in turn helps with testosterone production. There are also numerous studies showing the effects on improving testosterone in infertile men (ref 80).  If you are using the Aggressive Strength product you don't need to supplement with ashwagandha as it's included in the test booster formula. Likewise if you're using Tian Chi (my daily herb drink).
A large number of side-effects have been attributed to testosterone. In our clinical experience, the incidence of significant adverse effects with treatment producing physiological testosterone levels is low, and many side effects attributed to testosterone are mainly relevant to supraphysiological replacement. Some adverse effects are specific to a given mode of delivery and have already been described. Potential adverse effects concerning the prostate have also been discussed and require appropriate monitoring of symptoms, PSA and digital rectal examination. Other tumors which may be androgen responsive include cancer of the breast and primary liver tumors, and these are both contraindications to testosterone treatment
This product is to be taken once daily on an empty stomach. Is there a particular time frame when food can be eaten? If I were to take this in the morning right when I wake up and then eat breakfast an hour later, is that fine? Also, mostly the only time of day my stomach is usually empty is right before going to bed. If it is taken at this time, will this affect sleep at all?
The overweight men participated in one German study. The first group of the participants used a placebo for one year. The second group of the participants consumed vitamin D3. All the participants aspired to shed excessive weight. Those men who took this vitamin lost up to 6 kg of unwanted weight. Also, they got the additional bonus; that is, the increase in testosterone production by about 25%.4
Currently available testosterone preparations in common use include intramuscular injections, subcutaneous pellets, buccal tablets, transdermal gels and patches (see Table 2). Oral testosterone is not widely used. Unmodified testosterone taken orally is largely subject to first-pass metabolism by the liver. Oral doses 100 fold greater than physiological testosterone production can be given to achieve adequate serum levels. Methyl testosterone esters have been associated with hepatotoxicity. There has been some use of testosterone undecanoate, which is an esterified derivative of testosterone that is absorbed via the lymphatic system and bypasses the liver. Unfortunately, it produces unpredictable testosterone levels and increases testosterone levels for only a short period after each oral dose (Schurmeyer et al 1983).
Although, most studies on TT have been conducted on animals, the results appear promising. One study that looked at sexually sluggish male albino rats found that having been given extracts of TT, the rats "mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index" all increased, while "mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency" all decreased. Who said romance was dead?
First is quality, Advanced BCAA’s are made from whey protein isolate. Typical free form amino acids are made from human hair and other not so favorable sources. In addition many free form amino acids are made in China. Secondly is the “form” the amino acids are in. Advanced BCAA’s are in peptide form. Meaning they are in di and trip peptide form. The body ABSORBS amino acids in di and trip peptide form, through the intestinal wall and into the blood stream. It is still not known whether free form amino acids are absorbed by the body. Keep in mind that free form amino acids supplements have been around since the 80’s. They have never been proved to help muscle recovery and grow. Di and tri peptides have been proven to be beneficial for muscle recovery.
Well, this is another area of confusion and great debate, but I don’t think it’s as confusing as it appears to be in the literature. When most doctors learned about testosterone in medical school, they learned about total testosterone, or all the testosterone in the body. But about half of the testosterone that’s circulating in the bloodstream is not available to the cells. It’s tightly bound to a carrier molecule called sex hormone–binding globulin, which we abbreviate as SHBG.
Vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 actually isn’t a vitamin, it’s a hormone — a really important hormone that provides a whole host of health benefits. Our bodies can naturally make vitamin D from the sun, but recent studies have shown that many Westerners are vitamin D3 deprived because we’re spending less and less time outdoors. When we do decide to venture outside, we slather our bodies with sunscreen, which prevents the sun reaching our skin to kick-off vitamin D3 production. If you’re not getting enough sun, you may have a vitamin D3 deficiency, which may contribute to low T levels. If you think you need more vitamin D3, supplement it with a pill. Studies have shown that men who take this supplement see a boost in their testosterone levels. Because I have a darker complexion — which makes me prone to Vitamin D3 deficiency — I took 4,000 IU of vitamin D3 in the morning.

Findings that improvements in serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance or glycemic control, in men treated with testosterone are accompanied by reduced measures of central obesity, are in line with other studies showing a specific effect of testosterone in reducing central or visceral obesity (Rebuffe-Scrive et al 1991; Marin, Holmang et al 1992). Furthermore, studies that have shown neutral effects of testosterone on glucose metabolism have not measured (Corrales et al 2004), or shown neutral effects (Lee et al 2005) (Tripathy et al 1998; Bhasin et al 2005) on central obesity. Given the known association of visceral obesity with insulin resistance, it is possible that testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men acts to improve insulin resistance and diabetes through an effect in reducing central obesity. This effect can be explained by the action of testosterone in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and thereby reducing triglyceride uptake into adipocytes (Sorva et al 1988), an action which seems to occur preferentially in visceral fat (Marin et al 1995; Marin et al 1996). Visceral fat is thought to be more responsive to hormonal changes due to a greater concentration of androgen receptors and increased vascularity compared with subcutaneous fat (Bjorntorp 1996). Further explanation of the links between hypogonadism and obesity is offered by the hypogonadal-obesity-adipocytokine cycle hypothesis (see Figure 1). In this model, increases in body fat lead to increases in aromatase levels, in addition to insulin resistance, adverse lipid profiles and increased leptin levels. Increased action of aromatase in metabolizing testosterone to estrogen, reduces testosterone levels which induces further accumulation of visceral fat. Higher leptin levels and possibly other factors, act at the pituitary to suppress gonadotrophin release and exacerbate hypogonadism (Cohen 1999; Kapoor et al 2005). Leptin has also been shown to reduce testosterone secretion from rodent testes in vitro (Tena-Sempere et al 1999). A full review of the relationship between testosterone, insulin resistance and diabetes can be found elsewhere (Kapoor et al 2005; Jones 2007).


Statins are some of the most prescribed drugs in the world for reducing cholesterol levels and preventing heart disease. Various studies in the 1990s, including a study published in the ‘European Journal of Clinical Nutrition,’ supported the claim that Fenugreek could help reduce cholesterol levels[2]. One possible explanation is the high fiber content in fenugreek.  A fiber-rich diet has been shown to help reduce the levels of LDL (‘bad’ cholesterol) in your blood. (Note: The validity of the various studies from the 1990s have been questioned though because of small sample sizes[3])
The researchers found that the dose of testosterone required to produce different effects in the body varied widely. The influence of testosterone and estradiol also differed. As the testosterone gel dose was reduced, the scientists showed, reductions in lean mass, muscle size, and leg-press strength resulted from decreases in testosterone itself. In contrast, increases in body fat were due to the related declines in estradiol. Both testosterone and estradiol levels were associated with libido and erectile function.
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