In addition to conjugation and the 17-ketosteroid pathway, testosterone can also be hydroxylated and oxidized in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes, including CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6.[159] 6β-Hydroxylation and to a lesser extent 16β-hydroxylation are the major transformations.[159] The 6β-hydroxylation of testosterone is catalyzed mainly by CYP3A4 and to a lesser extent CYP3A5 and is responsible for 75 to 80% of cytochrome P450-mediated testosterone metabolism.[159] In addition to 6β- and 16β-hydroxytestosterone, 1β-, 2α/β-, 11β-, and 15β-hydroxytestosterone are also formed as minor metabolites.[159][160] Certain cytochrome P450 enzymes such as CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 can also oxidize testosterone at the C17 position to form androstenedione.[159]
Testosterone is the primary sex hormone in men, and it is responsible for the development of many of the physical characteristics that are considered typically male. Women also produce the hormone in much smaller amounts. Testosterone, part of a hormone class known as androgens, is produced by the testicles after stimulation by the pituitary gland, which is located near the base of the brain, and it sends signals to a male's testicles (or to a woman's ovaries) that spark feelings of sexual desire. (1)
Gary Womble… Get out of here with your quackery nonsense. No one likes trolls that want to push diet and weight loss pills as a serious solution to low t and ED. Anyone who reads your comment will waste at least 20 seconds of their life. What’s worse, they might listen to you instead of getting real medical advice that might actually help with an issue that is devastating to their lifestyle. And btw, before you decide to respond to this with more quackery, testimonials or fake research, know that I am a pharmaceutical scientist and won’t fall for your bogus statements

Despite all the wonderful benefits of testosterone boosters, it will only work as well as you are able to make it work. This means that if you’re living a sloppy lifestyle, then your testosterone booster will produce poor results. Testosterone boosters work best when you make small, healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet that will allow your T-booster to give you its full benefits.
But can testosterone replacement therapy help with heart disease? Study results are mixed. Small studies in the early 2000s found that men with heart disease who underwent testosterone therapy saw only slight improvements. Some were able to increase their walking distance by 33 percent. Another study found that hormone therapy only widened healthy arteries but had no effect on angina pain.
There are three ways to increase testosterone activity naturally with simple lifestyle choices. The first is to increase total testosterone production. Second is to increase the amount of free and active testosterone that can stimulate testosterone receptors. The third is to unblock testosterone receptors, opening them up for testosterone stimulation.
The reason I started the experiment at that point is because I know a lot of guys who live my last-August lifestyle all the time, and I wanted to see what would happen to an “average” guy who turned things around. At the same time, there was no “normal” time in my life which would have been better for me to start the experiment. My stress level and diet fluctuates throughout the year anyway, so at any point, factors in my current lifestyle would have influenced the results. I wanted to begin at “ground zero.”

So much to say, take a look at excelmale.com. it is a resource for men like us that give answers, science and dialogue which addresses our questions. It’s a great resource for men like us. Also, I would say to eliminate blue light before bed from tv and pc screens. Simply use blue light blocking glasses or F.lux from the play store. Also get outside in the sun in the AM. The goal is to restore the circadian rhythm which impacts hormone productiion.
Some studies have looked at testosterone therapy and cognition. Although the findings weren’t definitive, there was some evidence of cognitive improvement. Other studies have shown that it improves mood. Testosterone therapy has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of osteoporosis and in increasing muscle bulk and strength. [See “Testosterone’s impact on brain, bone, and muscle,” above.]
Hello everyone. First off, thank you Dr. Abraham Morgentaler, for the excellent and refreshing article. I do not intend to spill my guts about symptoms or values on here as it has already been done so many times over. I will say that I am an RN BSN and have been on HRT for going on 6 yrs. I live in Oklahoma and when I first started noticing symptoms I knew something was wrong and began to do research myself. With an initial level of 241 no doctor here at that time, would even consider HRT as I was only 35ish at the time.
It seems that adequate testosterone levels are an important influence on sexual symptoms in the aging male and also influence the response of men to PDE-5 inhibitors, the first line treatment for erectile dysfunction in men. Many would now suggest screening for testosterone deficiency in all men presenting with erectile dysfunction (Gore and Rajfer 2004; Shabsigh 2005). This would seem appropriate because, in addition to benefits on sexual function, identification and treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone could improve other symptoms of hypogonadism and protect against other conditions such as osteoporosis.
Stick to protocols that stress large degrees of muscle mass and are moderate- to high-intensity. Additionally, more seasoned gym-goers may want to incorporate forced repetitions periodically into their programs, as testosterone increases have been observed with this type of training.14 Incorporating other post-failure training techniques such as dropsets or partials may similarly be associated with higher T production.
Natural remedies for treating erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction has many causes, can affect any male, and is often distressing? Some people advocate several different natural remedies, mostly herbs and other plants. Here, we look at their merits and side effects, plus lifestyle changes, and alternative therapies that may bring relief for erectile dysfunction. Read now
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