Now, many men bypass the natty test booster category altogether, head straight for designer anabolic steroids, and start injecting testosterone (among other things). And, while exogenous testosterone administration will always trump the effects of natural testosterone boosters, that instant gratification does not come without a long, dreadful list of unwanted consequences.
It goes without saying that a healthy diet, quality sleep, productive lifestyle, and regular exercises can contribute to the overall increase of testosterone. However, it is also true that these activities are very often not enough for guys who have the problems with naturally low testosterone levels. This situation also includes people who want to boost their existing testosterone levels.
There are the testosterone deficiency signs, such as loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, impaired fertility, chronic fatigue, etc. But it’s not always possible to understand which medical condition caused the decrease in testosterone levels. For example, if you always feel exhausted and have no sexual desire, it may provide evidence of depression.
Next, while testosterone levels do decline with age, this may simply be because the older that men get, the less they take care of themselves – they stop exercising, start putting on weight, and don’t pay as much attention to their diet. A recent study suggests that age-related T decline is not inevitable, and that if you keep living a healthy lifestyle, you can maintain healthy testosterone levels. So if you’re an older guy, try to do all you can as far as lifestyle changes before you get on the prescription T. I don’t mean doing a little cardio a few times a week, using the machines at the gym, and eating “pretty” healthy. Follow the guidelines above, and see what happens first.
Using steroids eventually trains your body to realize that it doesn’t have to produce as much testosterone to reach its equilibrium, so to reach the same highs you’ll need to take more steroids, and when you stop taking them, your body will need to readjust — you’ll be living with low testosterone for a while (and you’ll need to see a doctor if your body doesn’t readjust on its own). Forcing your body to stay above your natural testosterone, even if you’re naturally low, can create this kind of dependency which ultimately decreases the amount of testosterone your body will produce on its own.

Consuming high amounts of sugary foods raises your blood glucose levels, which causes your body to release insulin as a response to the raised blood glucose levels. If not managed correctly, the body begins to develop a tolerance to insulin and cannot absorb the sugars in the blood stream as it used to, causing you to become insulin resistant. Being insulin resistant releases cortisol, and as you know, cortisol has extremely negative effects, lowering testosterone by quite a bit.

Hello..was prescribe andro gel 1.62 for about 2 years..borderline low..At time 54 year old now 57..a year ago switched doctors..new doctor would not prescribe andro gel..without me stopping use and then being checked after 6 months..it’s been a year..by the way felt great while on it much more energy. .did notice some hair receding. .but felt stronger..my question is..by using andro gel ..did I turn off my body’s natural ability to make testosterone as using andro gel..if so what do I need to do too turn my body on if my doctor does not renew therapy. .by way the past without andro gel…little too no energy..weight gain of 40 lbs..especially around the belly..thank you for your time and reply

And remember, saturated fats work best (along with monounsaturated fats – olive oil, almonds, avocados etc.). In fact higher intakes of polyunsaturated fats (canola oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, margarine etc.) are linked to LOWER testosterone levels (14 & 15). I explore the dangers of PUFA's in a lot more detail in this article - PUFA's: The Worst Thing For Your Health That You Eat Everyday.


“About 2 weeks after starting Andro400, I noticed my belly fat disappearing. Now, after only one month, I've lost about ten pounds all in my mid section. What a miracle! I have more energy and don't have to hold my gut in any longer. I'm more relaxed and my libido has increased 5 fold! I'm 58 years old and beginning to feel like a teenager again! Your product has delivered exactly as advertised. I'm elated!”

Mínguez-Alarcón, L., Chavarro, J. E., Mendiola, J., Roca, M., Tanrikut, C., Vioque, J., ... Torres-Cantero, A. M. (2017, March–April). Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men [Abstract]. Asian Journal of Andrology, 19(2), 184–190. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27834316
The aim of treatment for hypogonadism is to normalize serum testosterone levels and abolish symptoms or pathological states that are due to low testosterone levels. The exact target testosterone level is a matter of debate, but current recommendations advocate levels in the mid-lower normal adult range (Nieschlag et al 2005). Truly physiological testosterone replacement would require replication of the diurnal rhythm of serum testosterone levels, but there is no current evidence that this is beneficial (Nieschlag et al 2005).
D-AA:  D-Aspartic Acid has been known to increase libido and sex drive as well as fertility in infertile men. D-AA was the craze a few years back but the issue found was that after a month of use, the results started to diminish.  Also, if you currently have normal levels of testosterone, D-AA won’t do much good for you in terms of an increase in T-levels. 
^ Butenandt A, Hanisch G (1935). "Umwandlung des Dehydroandrosterons in Androstendiol und Testosterone; ein Weg zur Darstellung des Testosterons aus Cholestrin" [About Testosterone. Conversion of Dehydro-androsterons into androstendiol and testosterone; a way for the structure assignment of testosterone from cholesterol]. Hoppe-Seyler's Z Physiol Chem (in German). 237 (2): 89–97. doi:10.1515/bchm2.1935.237.1-3.89.
Zinc is little more of a nice-to-have ingredient than a must-have. It’s on our radar as an ingredient that possibly boosts testosterone levels, and while we couldn’t find enough supporting evidence that taking zinc would increase natural testosterone, low zinc levels have been connected to infertility. A low zinc level is also possibly a sign of hypogonadism. The closest support we found is in a study which found that people recovered from nutritional deficiency-related problems more quickly if they took a zinc supplement than those who did not. Zinc is available in many foods, such as oysters, fortified breakfast cereals, and red meat.
Based on my research, I guess fenugreek is kind of a crapshoot, a toss-up, a gamble, a coin toss, a roulette spin of sorts, you get the idea.  There are a lot of conflicting reports on whether it increases or decreases testosterone levels, but it seems like the libido-improvement is consistent.  The vast majority of men report positive effects from fenugreek so go ahead and give it a shot.
Testosterone may prove to be an effective treatment in female sexual arousal disorders,[52] and is available as a dermal patch. There is no FDA approved androgen preparation for the treatment of androgen insufficiency; however, it has been used off-label to treat low libido and sexual dysfunction in older women. Testosterone may be a treatment for postmenopausal women as long as they are effectively estrogenized.[52]
Attention, memory, and spatial ability are key cognitive functions affected by testosterone in humans. Preliminary evidence suggests that low testosterone levels may be a risk factor for cognitive decline and possibly for dementia of the Alzheimer's type,[104][105][106][107] a key argument in life extension medicine for the use of testosterone in anti-aging therapies. Much of the literature, however, suggests a curvilinear or even quadratic relationship between spatial performance and circulating testosterone,[108] where both hypo- and hypersecretion (deficient- and excessive-secretion) of circulating androgens have negative effects on cognition.
Transdermal preparations of testosterone utilize the fact that the skin readily absorbs steroid hormones. Initial transdermal preparations took the form of scrotal patches with testosterone loaded on to a membranous patch. Absorption from the scrotal skin was particularly good and physiological levels of testosterone with diurnal variation were reliably attained. The scrotal patches are now rarely used because they require regular shaving or clipping of scrotal hair and because they produce rather high levels of dihydrotestosterone compared to testosterone (Behre et al 1999). Subsequently, non-scrotal patches were developed but the absorptive capacity of non-scrotal skin is much lower, so these patches contain additional chemicals which enhance absorption. The non-scrotal skin patches produce physiological testosterone levels without supraphysiological dihydrotestosterone levels. Unfortunately, the patches produce a high rate of local skin reactions often leading to discontinuation (Parker and Armitage 1999). In the last few years, transdermal testosterone gel preparations have become available. These require daily application by patients and produce steady state physiological testosterone levels within a few days in most patients (Swerdloff et al 2000; Steidle et al 2003). The advantages compared with testosterone patches include invisibility, reduced skin irritation and the ability to adjust dosage, but concerns about transfer to women and children on close skin contact necessitate showering after application or coverage with clothes.
Testosterone strengthens bones. You may have thought of osteoporosis as a health problem that only women have to worry about, but men can suffer from this bone-weakening disease too. And low testosterone levels may be to blame. Testosterone has been shown to play an important role in bone health. It increases bone density by stimulating bone mineralization as well as decreases bone resorption. Elderly men suffering from osteoporosis typically have sub-optimal testosterone levels. If you want to enjoy strong, healthy bones well into old age, take steps to improve your testosterone levels now.
Testosterone may increase competitiveness. Men are known to be a competitive bunch and testosterone is likely responsible for our drive to win. Testosterone is linked with a man’s desire for power and status (Dabbs & Dabbs 2000). Testosterone ramps up before a fight or competition – producing effects on muscle mass and hemoglobin, quickening reactions, improving visual acuity, and increasing your feelings of endurance and indomitability. It also increases your “gameness:” One study showed that a man’s testosterone level after losing a game predicted whether or not he got back in for another round. Men who experienced a severe drop were less likely to play again, while men who experienced little or no drop in T levels got back into the game. Researchers concluded from this observation that T is one of the factors driving competitiveness in men.
Andy – If you take testosterone, your hypothalamus will notice an abundance of testosterone in your system and will instruct your pituitary gland not to send LH and FSH to your testicles. If you’re testicles are not receiving these two hormones, they will stop making testosterone. If you quit testosterone call turkey, you will likely fall back to your baseline level fairly quickly. There is a protocol however to get back to your normal production much quicker should you choose to quit therapy.
This study [9] also reported significantly increased glutathione levels. Glutathion has been shown to have a synergetic effect with l-citrulline as their combination further increases nitrate and nitrite levels and contributes to the sustained release of NO. While some previous studies have indicated that glutathione stimulates L-arginine turnover and increases nitric oxide synthase (NOS).
Meat. Meat, particularly beef, provides our bodies with the protein it needs to create muscle (more muscle = more T) and the fats and cholesterol to make testosterone. My meat topping of choice was sliced up chuck steak. I grilled two of them on Monday and it lasted me until the next Monday. Every now and then I’d slow-cook some ribs or brisket to use as my meat topping. My philosophy was the fattier, the better.
After 90 days, it seemed like the Andro Gel kind of stopped having it’s effect. Went back to see the doc, and my levels had dropped back to about 198 from high 200’s. Doc said it’s not unusual that the body gets used to it, and maybe I needed to adjust up. I switched to four pumps per day, and I felt immediate effects. Now…there is a period of ultra-horniness, and sometimes, you will feel some of the “roid rage” at some of these levels. It varies from person to person. Generally, if you are an ass, or high strung, this will amplify it. If you are pretty mellow, you may notice that every once in a while you’ll get angry at something that does matter, but again, it’s different person to person.
Testosterone begins with cholesterol. In fact, every single sex hormone you make you synthesize from cholesterol – that’s one reason a “heart healthy” low-fat, low-cholesterol diet limits your performance. Fat and cholesterol don’t make you fat. They give your body the building blocks to create abundant testosterone and other sex hormones, which actually makes you lose weight and build muscle, especially if your current testosterone levels are low [1].
To find the best testosterone booster, we collected every supplement available on BodyBuilding.com, and cross-checked our list against the top results on best of lists like MensFitness, BroScience, and BodyNutrition. We only looked at pills since some of the ingredients in testosterone boosters have a reputation for tasting bad, and powders just prolong the experience. There are a lot — 133 of them to be precise — and they all claim to boost testosterone levels. Testosterone (for men) is “thought to regulate sex drive (libido), bone mass, fat distribution, muscle mass and strength, and the production of red blood cells and sperm.” If a supplement can increase your natural testosterone levels, the rest should follow. As we mentioned above, it’s not that simple, and at best, you’ll experience only a short-lived boost.

You can browse Drugs A-Z for a specific prescription or over-the-counter drug or look up drugs based on your specific condition. This information is for educational purposes only, and not meant to provide medical advice, treatment, or diagnosis. Remember to always consult your physician or health care provider before starting, stopping, or altering a treatment or health care regimen.


Fenugreek is often found in Indian, Turkish, and Persian cuisine. Multiple studies have found it to improve testosterone levels, and in particular, sexual performance. Scientists at Babu Banarasi Das University and King George’s Medical University in India have found that fenugreek improved testosterone levels. Testosterone levels increased for 90% of the volunteers, sperm morphology (the size and shape of sperm) improved for 14.6%, and more than 50% of volunteers experienced improvements in mental alertness, mood, and libido.
If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your healthcare provider or 911 immediately. Any mention of products or services is not meant as a guarantee, endorsement, or recommendation of the products, services, or companies. Reliance on any information provided is solely at your own risk. Please discuss any options with your healthcare provider.
Stored food in glassware and never, ever, ever heated food in plastic containers. Most modern plastics contain phthalates. Phthalates are what give plastic their flexibility, durability, and longevity. But they also screw with hormones by imitating estrogen. Because I didn’t want any of those T-draining molecules in my food, I kept all my food in glassware. I also made sure to never heat food in plastic containers, as heat increases the transfer of phthalates into food.
Like other steroid hormones, testosterone is derived from cholesterol (see figure).[128] The first step in the biosynthesis involves the oxidative cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1), a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 oxidase with the loss of six carbon atoms to give pregnenolone. In the next step, two additional carbon atoms are removed by the CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum to yield a variety of C19 steroids.[129] In addition, the 3β-hydroxyl group is oxidized by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to produce androstenedione. In the final and rate limiting step, the C17 keto group androstenedione is reduced by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to yield testosterone.
The hormone also plays a role in sex drive, sperm production, fat distribution, red cell production, and maintenance of muscle strength and mass, according to the Mayo Clinic. For these reasons, testosterone is associated with overall health and well-being in men. One 2008 study published in the journal Frontiers of Hormone Research even linked testosterone to the prevention of osteoporosis in men.

Some of the effects of testosterone treatment are well recognised and it seems clear that testosterone treatment for aging hypogonadal men can be expected to increase lean body mass, decrease visceral fat mass, increase bone mineral density and decrease total cholesterol. Beneficial effects have been seen in many trials on other parameters such as glycemic control in diabetes, erectile dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors, angina, mood and cognition. These potentially important effects require confirmation in larger clinical trials. Indeed, it is apparent that longer duration randomized controlled trials of testosterone treatment in large numbers of men are needed to confirm the effects of testosterone on many aspects of aging male health including cardiovascular health, psychiatric health, prostate cancer and functional capacity. In the absence of such studies, it is necessary to balance risk and benefit on the best available data. At the present time the data supports the treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone to normalize testosterone levels and improve symptoms. Most men with hypogonadism do not have a contraindication to treatment, but it is important to monitor for adverse consequences including prostate complications and polycythemia.
There is increasing interest in the group of patients who fail to respond to treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors and have low serum testosterone levels. Evidence from placebo-controlled trials in this group of men shows that testosterone treatment added to PDE-5 inhibitors improves erectile function compared to PDE-5 inhibitors alone (Aversa et al 2003; Shabsigh et al 2004).
Before taking any supplements, at either end of the spectrum, you need to check whether it’s low testosterone that is actually causing the problem. Taking something that you don’t need could potentially cause irreversible issues. For that reason, steroid hormones like DHEA should never be prescribed without having blood tests first. Roked also recommends regular blood monitoring to make sure you’re taking the correct dosage.
Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome caused by a lack of androgens or their action. Causes of hypogonadism may reflect abnormalities of the hypothalamus, pituitary, testes or target tissues. Increases in the amount of testosterone converted to estrogen under the action of the enzyme aromatase may also contribute to hypogonadism. Most aspects of the clinical syndrome are unrelated to the location of the cause. A greater factor in the production of a clinical syndrome is the age of onset. The development of hypogonadism with aging is known as late-onset hypogonadism and is characterised by loss of vitality, fatigue, loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, somnolence, depression and poor concentration. Hypogonadal ageing men also gain fat mass and lose bone mass, muscle mass and strength.

Cross-sectional studies have not shown raised testosterone levels at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer, and in fact, low testosterone at the time of diagnosis has been linked with more locally aggressive and malignant tumors (Massengill et al 2003; Imamoto et al 2005; Isom-Batz et al 2005). This may reflect loss of hormone related control of the tumor or the effect of a more aggressive tumor in decreasing testosterone levels. One study found that 14% of hypogonadal men, with normal digital rectal examination and PSA levels, had histological prostate cancer on biopsy. It is possible that low androgen levels masked the usual evidence of prostate cancer in this population (Morgentaler et al 1996). Most longitudinal studies have not shown a correlation between testosterone levels and the future development of prostate cancer (Carter et al 1995; Heikkila et al 1999; Stattin et al 2004) but a recent study did find a positive association (Parsons et al 2005). Interpretation of such data requires care, as the presentation of prostate cancer could be altered or delayed in patients with lower testosterone levels.


It goes without saying that a healthy diet, quality sleep, productive lifestyle, and regular exercises can contribute to the overall increase of testosterone. However, it is also true that these activities are very often not enough for guys who have the problems with naturally low testosterone levels. This situation also includes people who want to boost their existing testosterone levels.
Take 1 teaspoon. Incredibly dense in nutrients and feed by bees to the larvae who grows on to be the queen bee. I found one human study where a 4g daily serving led to an small increase in testosterone in older men (ref 78). There are also numerous animal studies (ref 79) showing positive effects. Personally I source NZ manuka royal jelly from Manuka Health.
Most studies support a link between adult criminality and testosterone, although the relationship is modest if examined separately for each sex. Nearly all studies of juvenile delinquency and testosterone are not significant. Most studies have also found testosterone to be associated with behaviors or personality traits linked with criminality such as antisocial behavior and alcoholism. Many studies have also been done on the relationship between more general aggressive behavior/feelings and testosterone. About half the studies have found a relationship and about half no relationship.[66] However, later it was found out that testosterone activates dominant, aggressive behavior if at the same time a person has high testosterone and low levels of cortisol in the blood. Conversely, a high level of testosterone and high levels of cortisol do not stimulate dominant behavior. Because cortisol inhibits the action of testosterone.[67][68][69][70] This is probably why the results of the experiments were inconsistent.
Since then, multiple studies have found no link between high testosterone levels and increasing your chances of developing prostate cancer. However — and this is a BIG however — if you already have prostate cancer, increased levels of testosterone may exacerbate the problem. It’s best to wait until after you treat your prostate cancer before you begin any T-boosting regimens. Tread carefully and talk with your doctor.

AC, I just ran across the thread… definitely start the injections. Should help with levels that low. I’m 36 and have battled low T for 6-7 years. My labs came back to show 90ng/dl when I just turned 30, and I’ve done Testosterone cypionate injections @ 100mg/mL weekly, Testim, Androgel, and Fortesta over the years. I’m actually going to my endocrinologist tomorrow to have new blood work done.


On review of the patient’s history, he was found to have undergone laboratory tests before starting to use the aforementioned testosterone booster product. All blood parameters (testosterone hormone and full chemical profile) before product intake were in the normal range. A physical examination that included blood pressure and pulse assessments showed nothing out of the ordinary, and the man appeared to be in good condition before product consumption. After that medical checkup, the athlete began to consume the product for 42 continuous days divided into 2 cycles (each cycle comprised 24 days). The daily dose was a single pack of Universal Nutrition Animal Stak (ingredients are listed in Table 1), following the exact direction of the manufacturing company hoping to get the best results.
Have you ever wondered why? When we are under stress, our body produces cortisol that is bad for our testosterone levels. This particular component blocks the production of testosterone. In addition, if there is a lack of Z’s then this is the bad news for your testosterone. You should know that the huge amounts of testosterone are produced during our sleep. Every guy knows that the “morning wood” comes only after a good night sleep.
Pine Pollen is an androgen, meaning in theory it can raise testosterone levels – effectively making it a naturally derived source of testosterone. Read more about this on the links below. But like I said I started taking it for a few weeks and did notice a bit more ‘up and go’ so to speak, but it did only last a few weeks. I have tried cycling it but haven’t noticed the same effects as I had when I initially started with it. I’m still experimenting and will keep this page updated. Therefore I recommend doing your own research.

What makes TestoFuel different from other testosterone boosters on the market is that the company is constantly researching and updating the ingredients. So, you know you are getting a product that has been formulated using the latest clinical studies. Unlike most other companies that formulate a product and update it every 3 – 5 years or never at all.
6)  Take Cold Showers:  Cold showers have been known to stimulate and boost testosterone production and improve metabolism, detoxification and brain function.  Start your shower with warm/hot water and turn it to cold for the last 30-60 seconds while pumping your muscles and creating a big shiver as your muscles contract.  That will help to boost internal heat and boost testosterone production.  This article will help you.

Although it’s rare to see swelling caused by fluid retention, physicians need to be careful when prescribing testosterone to men with compromised kidney or liver function, or some degree of congestive heart failure. It can also increase the oiliness of the skin, so that some men get acne or pimples, but that’s quite uncommon, as are sleep apnea and gynecomastia (breast enlargement).
Hi.i have a simple question…I AM 60 YEARS OLD and my free testosterone is 7… and my regular testosterone is 700+…I really need TRT …and in case yes i need it the doctor said if i start i need to do it for the rest of my life !!! he said is not coming back!!! ..i don’t know is true or not??? With my testosterone levels i need or not to do TRT???..i am going in gym daily and i feel good in general …all my blood results are perfect …///Again if i take the TRT will help me in general ??or is better to not use the “TRT”..Thank you for your time to answer HONEST for my question ..I ask this because i don’t know what to do ..i don’t want to do something wrong???…!!!..ps .if is possible to answer me on my email ..Thank you v v much and GOD BLESS YOU …Chris…R…
Are you getting enough vitamin D? Vitamin D is an essential nutrient, but it can be difficult for people to know if they are getting the right amount. Some people will be able to get enough vitamin D from sunlight. Others may need to make dietary changes or take supplements. Here, we explain how to get vitamin D from sunlight, food, and supplements. Read now
Testosterone may strengthen your heart. Research on testosterone’s relation to heart health is split. Some scientists have found that men with higher testosterone levels have an increased risk of heart disease, while recent studies have shown that men with below-normal T levels are more at risk for heart problems. The research is still on-going, but many doctors find the evidence compelling that optimal testosterone levels can help prevent cardiovascular disease.
Like other steroid hormones, testosterone is derived from cholesterol (see figure).[128] The first step in the biosynthesis involves the oxidative cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1), a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 oxidase with the loss of six carbon atoms to give pregnenolone. In the next step, two additional carbon atoms are removed by the CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum to yield a variety of C19 steroids.[129] In addition, the 3β-hydroxyl group is oxidized by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to produce androstenedione. In the final and rate limiting step, the C17 keto group androstenedione is reduced by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to yield testosterone.
Most Americans today are sleep deprived, which may be a contributing factor to declining testosterone levels in men. See, our body makes nearly all the testosterone it needs for the day while we’re sleeping. That increased level of T that we experience at night is one of the reasons we wake up with “Morning Wood.” (If you don’t have Morning Wood on a consistent basis, you might have low T).

Rest and recovery is just as important as exercise, if not more so. Every time you do an intense workout, give yourself a minimum of 2 days to recuperate afterward, if not more. And don’t mix exercise with sleep hacking. If you’re exercising, get at least 8 hours of sleep every night. Your body uses it to rebuild, and you can throw your hormones out of whack if you don’t rest up properly. Here’s a more in-depth guide to Bulletproof weight training, complete with sample workouts.

“She” being the key word. I had to quit a female doc because even though my level was down to 200, she thought I just needed more vitamin D! When I tried that and came back a few weeks later and told her there was no change in how I felt she refused to order another blood test, and after that wouldn’t even see me. I would never trust a female doctor with testosterone replacement therapy, as they all seem to have the same shit attitude from what my friends have told me, they treat it like it’s not a real thing even though you better bow down and kiss their asses when it comes to breast cancer and menopause.
Men who watch a sexually explicit movie have an average increase of 35% in testosterone, peaking at 60–90 minutes after the end of the film, but no increase is seen in men who watch sexually neutral films.[43] Men who watch sexually explicit films also report increased motivation, competitiveness, and decreased exhaustion.[44] A link has also been found between relaxation following sexual arousal and testosterone levels.[45]
Present in much greater levels in men than women, testosterone initiates the development of the male internal and external reproductive organs during foetal development and is essential for the production of sperm in adult life. This hormone also signals the body to make new blood cells, ensures that muscles and bones stay strong during and after puberty and enhances libido both in men and women. Testosterone is linked to many of the changes seen in boys during puberty (including an increase in height, body and pubic hair growth, enlargement of the penis, testes and prostate gland, and changes in sexual and aggressive behaviour). It also regulates the secretion of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. To effect these changes, testosterone is often converted into another androgen called dihydrotestosterone. 
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