Natural testosterone boosters also help to increase the amount of free testosterone in the body. There are a couple of different ingredients they use that help with this. One of these ingredients is stinging nettle. Stinging nettle is actually able to bind to the globulin in place of testosterone, therefore leaving more free testosterone in the body that is unbound.
In addition to its role as a natural hormone, testosterone is used as a medication, for instance in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men and breast cancer in women.[10] Since testosterone levels decrease as men age, testosterone is sometimes used in older men to counteract this deficiency. It is also used illicitly to enhance physique and performance, for instance in athletes.
Testosterone is an androgen hormone produced by the adrenal cortex, the testes (in men), and the ovaries (in women). It is often considered the primary male sex hormone. Testosterone stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics (like body hair and muscle growth) and is essential in the production of sperm. In women, testosterone plays a role in egg development and ovulation.
Testosterone is necessary for normal sperm development. It activates genes in Sertoli cells, which promote differentiation of spermatogonia. It regulates acute HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) response under dominance challenge.[22] Androgen including testosterone enhances muscle growth. Testosterone also regulates the population of thromboxane A2 receptors on megakaryocytes and platelets and hence platelet aggregation in humans.[23][24]
Our bodies need zinc to make testosterone. Zinc also blocks the action of aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen. Oysters offer the highest amount of zinc per serving of any food. Just six oysters contain about 500 percent of the mineral’s recommended daily allowance (RDA). Other zinc-rich foods include lean meats and spinach.

The sad truth, is that these purported testosterone support products were completely and utterly useless. They did absolutely nothing for testosterone production due to the simple fact that they didn’t contain any ingredients shown in human research trials to actually support testosterone production. Sure, they included all sorts of ancient herbs and botanical extracts that worked well in rats, but nary a compound that would actually benefit a real live human being.
The basis for my thinking that T levels could be boosted by cold baths came from a post I wrote a few years ago on the benefits of cold showers. One benefit I found in my research was that they could increase testosterone levels. I mentioned a 1993 study done by the Thrombosis Research Institute in England that found increased T levels after taking a cold shower. Here’s the thing. I can’t find a link to the original source and I can’t find any other studies that support this claim! So without supporting research, I’m unsure of the effects of cold showers on testosterone.
Zinc is little more of a nice-to-have ingredient than a must-have. It’s on our radar as an ingredient that possibly boosts testosterone levels, and while we couldn’t find enough supporting evidence that taking zinc would increase natural testosterone, low zinc levels have been connected to infertility. A low zinc level is also possibly a sign of hypogonadism. The closest support we found is in a study which found that people recovered from nutritional deficiency-related problems more quickly if they took a zinc supplement than those who did not. Zinc is available in many foods, such as oysters, fortified breakfast cereals, and red meat.
Avoid stressful situations – It is actually that simple. If you can avoid stressful situations, then you can significantly improve your overall testosterone production. Why is that? Well, you should know that stress makes our bodies to produce cortisol that is a notorious and well-known testosterone killer. So, what can you do about it? Well, you should definitely try deep breathing, meditating, exercising, and other lifestyle changes that can help you deal with the stressful situations the right way.
The rise in testosterone levels during competition predicted aggression in males but not in females.[90] Subjects who interacted with hand guns and an experimental game showed rise in testosterone and aggression.[91] Natural selection might have evolved males to be more sensitive to competitive and status challenge situations and that the interacting roles of testosterone are the essential ingredient for aggressive behaviour in these situations.[92] Testosterone produces aggression by activating subcortical areas in the brain, which may also be inhibited or suppressed by social norms or familial situations while still manifesting in diverse intensities and ways through thoughts, anger, verbal aggression, competition, dominance and physical violence.[93] Testosterone mediates attraction to cruel and violent cues in men by promoting extended viewing of violent stimuli.[94] Testosterone specific structural brain characteristic can predict aggressive behaviour in individuals.[95]
When I was using the gel my testicles also shrank a bit, but not anywhere near this amount. And when I stopped using the gel they plumbed back up again to their former size. It took some time but their size came back. This may be an issue for the younger guys, but I think most older guys can easily handle this as no big deal, because overall it’s not.

If you do take DAA I recommend cycling it (i.e. 5 days on, 2 off, over 4 weeks then 4 weeks off). And taking it with an aromatase inhibitor (which ensures the aspartic acid doesn’t get converted to estrogen). Especially as more studies are coming out showing the increase in testosterone is limited to a week or two before it drops back to normal levels.
Felt I was more sluggish than I should be,Went on TRT ’cause my bloodwork said I fell in the parameters for hormone therapy. When i started felt I was 17, (I was 50))I did everything possible and passed for type A, and physiologically, things seem to heal faster. But I missed memories, now that I was speeded-up I no longer could easily connect and be a part of them.
Caffeine: While caffeine can’t ramp up testosterone directly, it can help you put in the quality work in the gym that will spike your T. One International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism study, for instance, found that athletes who consumed caffeine before training lifted more—and experienced a greater subsequent lift in testosterone—than those who took a placebo.
This paper will aim to review the current evidence of clinical effects of testosterone treatment within an aging male population. As with any other clinical intervention a decision to treat patients with testosterone requires a balance of risk versus benefit. We shall try to facilitate this by examining the effects of testosterone on the various symptoms and organs involved.
We do note that Beast Sports’ supplemental magnesium level is fairly low — 26 mg per serving, up to 52 mg per day. If your diet is not particularly rich in magnesium (found in leafy greens, nuts, and whole grains), Beast Sports may not give you enough to meet the daily recommended dose. However, if you’re taking other multi-vitamins or supplements with magnesium, you’re less likely to cross that 350mg daily upper limit.
It's not enough just to increase the testosterone your body produces, because as we age, the testosterone we naturally produce is often bound by SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) thus becoming unavailable for use in the body. It’s imperative that your testosterone remains unbound or “free” if you want to enjoy all the wonderful benefits testosterone provides.

Watch out for ingredients that interfere with blood clotting If you are taking any kind of blood medication, take aspirin or ibuprofen, or have any kind of blood-related condition, you’ll want to consult your doctor before taking any of these supplements. Fenugreek, Forskolin, and Acetyl-L-carnitine are just a few of the ingredients that can make these situations worse and increase your chances of bruising and bleeding.
Benefits: Ashwagandha a wonderful herb originating from India is also called the Indian Ginseng because of it’s regard as a powerful aphrodisiac. Ashwagandha roots when consumed it increases sexual powers. These sexual powers include maintaining a stronger erection, longevity, enhanced sexual feeling. It also enhances fertility by increasing sperm count and quality. Ashwaganda works by reducing prolactin and neutralizing free radicals which both leads to increased testosterone levels.
Bikinis, models, nuts … Is there anything Brazilian that’s not sexy? Selenium is a trace mineral found in Brazil nuts that plays an important role in hormone health. You only need a tiny bit for healthy sperm, but a tiny deficiency can be catastrophic for reproductive health. In one study, men who had lower testosterone and were infertile also had significantly lower selenium levels than the fertile group. Supplementing with the mineral improved chances of successful conception by 56 percent. And a second study that included 69 infertile men with low levels of the mineral, found selenium supplementation could significantly improve sub-par sperm motility associated with testosterone deficiency. Moreover, 11 percent of the men successfully impregnated their partners during the trial!
A testosterone booster is a natural supplement used by people (mostly men) to boost their testosterone levels. They work in a few different ways. First, they often impact the hormones related to testosterone and cause more of the hormones to circulate in the blood. They also can block estrogen production, which is commonly called a female sex hormone.
BSN Evotest the next ranked testosterone booster and is a unique option in that it’s available in both capsule and powdered drink form. For those who dislike swallowing pills, this will be a better route to go. There are mixed reports on the taste quality of the product, however, this is an individual preference and should not be something that deters you from purchasing it. It mixes fairly well by most reports, so is something that you should be able to easily take with you to the gym for use during the workout session.
In summary, low testosterone levels are linked to the presence of numerous cardiovascular risk factors. Testosterone treatment acts to improve some of these factors, but effects may vary according to pre- and post-treatment testosterone levels, as well as other factors. There is little data from trials specific to aging males. Appropriately-powered randomized controlled trials, with cardiovascular disease primary endpoints, are needed to clarify the situation, but in the meantime the balance of evidence is that testosterone has either neutral or beneficial effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease in men. It is particularly important to define the effect of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular disease in view of its potential use as an anti-anginal agent.
Thus, alcohol metabolism destroys the essential coenzyme required for T synthesis. Alcohol also contributes to the release of special endorphins which inhibit hormone production. In addition, drinking too much alcohol leads to the elevation of estrogen levels in men because of the conversion of testosterone in estrogen. It means that T levels come down with a run.
I have had BPH for years. Am in early 60s and recently had a 12 site prostate biopsy after a very slow rise of PSA to 4.5 (over a period of 10 years). There were two sites with PIN (one with outpouching and one was focal). Have been on various form of test replacement…changing methods periodically from test cyp IM, or SQ, with and without HCG or HCG alone. I want to continue a very low dose of either HCG or Test Cyp (10-20mg twice/week). What are your thoughts?
The most popular way is to combine with a good tasting protein powder. Advanced BCAA’s taste very bitter due to the high amount of peptides. Peptides taste very bitter. You want to use 1 tsp of Advanced BCAA’s with every serving of protein powder. This will really upgrade the quality of the protein powder by adding BCAA, AND in peptides form. If you are using a whey protein you’ll increase the overall BCAA content by over 20%
Unfortunately, in the modern world, stresses and emotional exhaustion lie in wait for men at every step. Nowadays, burnout is a constant state for many men. Of course, this causes great harm to the men’s health. Stresses drain of vitality and affect emotional state. Besides, they are also very dangerous for the nervous system. The nature is wise. And the body of a man who is not subject to stress can produce more testosterone.
The mineral zinc is important for testosterone production, and supplementing your diet for as little as six weeks has been shown to cause a marked improvement in testosterone among men with low levels.1 Likewise, research has shown that restricting dietary sources of zinc leads to a significant decrease in testosterone, while zinc supplementation increases it2 -- and even protects men from exercised-induced reductions in testosterone levels.3

Vitamin D and zinc are both essential to testosterone production. A year-long study looked at the vitamin D and testosterone levels of 2299 men. It found that men with vitamin D levels above 30 nmol/L had more testosterone and lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG binds to hormones so your cells can’t use them, and if you have too much of it, your testosterone levels drop [8]. Men with vitamin D deficiency had lower testosterone and higher SHBG levels.
In summary, low testosterone levels are linked to the presence of numerous cardiovascular risk factors. Testosterone treatment acts to improve some of these factors, but effects may vary according to pre- and post-treatment testosterone levels, as well as other factors. There is little data from trials specific to aging males. Appropriately-powered randomized controlled trials, with cardiovascular disease primary endpoints, are needed to clarify the situation, but in the meantime the balance of evidence is that testosterone has either neutral or beneficial effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease in men. It is particularly important to define the effect of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular disease in view of its potential use as an anti-anginal agent.
The research conducted by the American scientists has proven that this plant has a great potential to raise serum lactate, improve sports performance, enhance muscle strength, increase oxygen supply to the body tissues, maintain heart health, boost memory and concentration, restore work capacity, normalize homeostasis, and make the reaction time to a variety of visual and auditory stimuli much longer.3

Produced primarily by the testicles, testosterone is the hormone responsible for developing male sexual traits and maintaining muscle mass, bone density and red blood cell levels. Testosterone levels peak in adolescence and early adulthood then begin to decline with age, typically at a rate of 1 to 2 percent per year after age 30. Testosterone levels influence physical, emotional and sexual well being, with higher testosterone generally having a favorable effect on attitude and performance. Though increasing testosterone can have benefits, changes to testosterone levels can affect hormonal production elsewhere in the endocrine system, so consult a doctor prior to attempting to raise your testosterone.


I’m telling you all of this because no matter who you are, keeping your testosterone levels balanced is more important now than ever before. Modern living has not been kind to our hormones. In American men, serum testosterone levels have declined by about 1% each year for the past 30 years [5], and you can make a few educated guesses about why. Hormone-disrupting chemicals are more prevalent than ever before, physical activity is less and less common, veganism is popular (I was a raw vegan for a while), and many doctors insist on pushing a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for health (by the way, the concept of a low-fat diet began in the mid-70s, shortly before the nationwide testosterone decline. It could be a coincidence, but I doubt it).
Some people can get away with more of a barebones approach to boosting their testosterone levels.  MET-Rx Tribulus 750 has been around for years and has been used by many to help get their testosterone levels back within the normal range.  The product has been laboratory tested and has been deemed safe for use by athletes, bodybuilders, and gym rats alike.

Erectile dysfunction is a common finding in the aging male. A prevalence of over 70% was found in men older than 70 in a recent cross-sectional study (Ponholzer et al 2005). Treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors is proven to be effective for the majority of men but some do not respond (Shabsigh and Anastasiadis 2003). The condition is multi-factorial, with contributions from emotional, vascular, neurological and pharmacological factors. The concept of erectile dysfunction as a vascular disease is particularly interesting in view of the evidence presented above, linking testosterone to atherosclerosis and describing its action as a vasodilator.


Hallie Levine is an award-winning magazine and freelance writer who contributes to Consumer Reports on health and fitness topics. Her work has been published in Health, Prevention, Reader's Digest, and Parents, among others. She's a mom to three kids and a fat but feisty black Labrador retriever named Ivry. In her (nonexistent) spare time, she likes to read, swim, and run marathons.
Falling in love decreases men's testosterone levels while increasing women's testosterone levels. There has been speculation that these changes in testosterone result in the temporary reduction of differences in behavior between the sexes.[53] However, it is suggested that after the "honeymoon phase" ends—about four years into a relationship—this change in testosterone levels is no longer apparent.[53] Men who produce less testosterone are more likely to be in a relationship[54] or married,[55] and men who produce more testosterone are more likely to divorce;[55] however, causality cannot be determined in this correlation. Marriage or commitment could cause a decrease in testosterone levels.[56] Single men who have not had relationship experience have lower testosterone levels than single men with experience. It is suggested that these single men with prior experience are in a more competitive state than their non-experienced counterparts.[57] Married men who engage in bond-maintenance activities such as spending the day with their spouse/and or child have no different testosterone levels compared to times when they do not engage in such activities. Collectively, these results suggest that the presence of competitive activities rather than bond-maintenance activities are more relevant to changes in testosterone levels.[58]
The regular intake of testosterone boosters is known for the high level of safety comparing to the hormone injections and the use of illegal steroids. But still to protect yourself against any possible adverse reactions, you should remember that the supplementation can’t be continuous. The breaks from time to time are required. Such an approach to the use of boosters is healthy and best-working if you aspire to enhance own hormone production without any harm.
Your diet is the best source of zinc; along with protein-rich foods like meats and fish, other good dietary sources of zinc include raw milk, raw cheese, beans, and yogurt or kefir made from raw milk. It can be difficult to obtain enough dietary zinc if you're a vegetarian, and also for meat-eaters as well, largely because of conventional farming methods that rely heavily on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. These chemicals deplete the soil of nutrients ... nutrients like zinc that must be absorbed by plants in order to be passed on to you.
The T Trials will serve as a prelude to lengthier and more robust trials in the future. More results from the T Trials are now coming in and overall results were mixed, with testosterone replacement associated with some benefits and some risks. More research needs to be done to figure out the balance of these potential benefits and risks as well as the precise clinical utility of testosterone treatment.
In high-fat high-furctose fed rats, ginger neutralized diet induced impairment in glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress [28]. This observed anti-diabetic activity of ginger powder is credited to two active components: 6-paradol and 6-shogaol [29]. They both exhibit potent activity in stimulating glucose utilization by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. In the high-fat diet mouse model, 6-paradol decreased blood glucose, cholesterol and body weight.
46 year old whose suffered with low libido and all the related symptoms for over a decade. Finally had the courage to have a frank talk with dr. and urologist. Testosterone level 165, free testos level 3.6. Re-doing blood work again just to be sure in the next week or so, and will post updates then as things progress. Normal ranges are 300-1200 and 6 to 12.
My favorite overall tool to manage stress is EFT (Emotional Freedom Technique), which is like acupuncture without the needles. It's a handy, free tool for unloading emotional baggage quickly and painlessly, and so easy that even children can learn it. Other common stress-reduction tools with a high success rate include prayer, meditation, laughter and yoga, for example. Learning relaxation skills, such as deep breathing and positive visualization, which is the "language" of the subconscious.
A number of research groups have tried to further define the relationship of testosterone and body composition by artificial alteration of testosterone levels in eugonadal populations. Induction of a hypogonadal state in healthy men (Mauras et al 1998) or men with prostate cancer (Smith et al 2001) using a gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogue was shown to produce increases in fat mass and decreased fat free mass. Another experimental approach in healthy men featured suppression of endogenous testosterone production with a GnRH analogue, followed by treatment with different doses of weekly intramuscular testosterone esters for 20 weeks. Initially the experiments involved men aged 18–35 years (Bhasin et al 2001) but subsequently the study was repeated with a similar protocol in men aged 60–75 years (Bhasin et al 2005). The different doses given were shown to produce a range of serum concentrations from subphysiological to supraphysiological (Bhasin et al 2001). A given testosterone dose produced higher serum concentrations of testosterone in the older age group (Bhasin et al 2005). Subphysiological dosing of testosterone produced a gain in fat mass and loss of fat free mass during the study. There were sequential decreases in fat mass and increases in fat free mass with each increase of testosterone dose. These changes in body composition were seen in physiological and supraphysiological treatment doses. The trend was similar in younger versus older men but the gain of fat mass at the lowest testosterone dose was less prominent in older patients (Bhasin et al 2001; Bhasin et al 2005). With regard to muscle function, the investigators showed dose dependent increases in leg strength and power with testosterone treatment in young and older men but there was no improvement in fatigability (Storer et al 2003; Bhasin et al 2005).
I’m a 70 year old male. Here’s my brief story, I was exhausted all the time after an encounter with H-Py-Lori. After may tests it was found out that my T-count was at about 250. I was put on a testosterone cream replacement therapy. Before I knew it, at about month I was at 1500 count. This was at 4 cream applications a day. The doctor took me down to twice/two applications a day, now I was at 600. I felt great at both levels.
When I was using the gel my testicles also shrank a bit, but not anywhere near this amount. And when I stopped using the gel they plumbed back up again to their former size. It took some time but their size came back. This may be an issue for the younger guys, but I think most older guys can easily handle this as no big deal, because overall it’s not.
The other problem researchers run into when studying the benefits of testosterone is distinguishing between “cause” and “effect.” Is it T that’s providing all these great health benefits or does simply being healthy give you optimal levels of testosterone? It’s tricky because in some instances the answer is “both.” Testosterone (like all hormones) often plays a part in a “virtuous cycle” that regulates a whole host of  processes in our bodies — as you increase T, you get healthier; as you get healthier, your T levels rise. It can also play a part in a “vicious cycle” — as your T levels go down, your health suffers; as your health suffers, your T levels decrease even more.
MuscleTech Pro Series Alpha Test claims you’ll be able to see increases in free testosterone levels in as few as seven days. Its formula is supported by potent ingredients such as Fenugreek, Shilajit, and Boron Citrate. The formulation can also help increase lean muscle mass, strength, as well as overall performance and maintains a peak testosterone-to-cortisol ratio.
Around age 30, men’s testosterone levels begin a long, gradual decline. (According to the FDA, normal T range is between 300 to 1,000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl) of blood serum. Anything below 300 ng/dl is considered low.) If a blood test confirms you have low T, your doctor may recommend a prescription testosterone supplement or replacement therapy.
First is quality, Advanced BCAA’s are made from whey protein isolate. Typical free form amino acids are made from human hair and other not so favorable sources. In addition many free form amino acids are made in China. Secondly is the “form” the amino acids are in. Advanced BCAA’s are in peptide form. Meaning they are in di and trip peptide form. The body ABSORBS amino acids in di and trip peptide form, through the intestinal wall and into the blood stream. It is still not known whether free form amino acids are absorbed by the body. Keep in mind that free form amino acids supplements have been around since the 80’s. They have never been proved to help muscle recovery and grow. Di and tri peptides have been proven to be beneficial for muscle recovery.
Mental status changes including excess aggression are a well known phenomenon in the context of anabolic steroid abuse (Perry et al 1990). An increase in self-reported aggressive behaviors have also been reported in one double blind placebo controlled trial of testosterone in young hypogonadal men (Finkelstein et al 1997), but this has not been confirmed in other studies (Skakkebaek et al 1981; O’Connor et al 2002). Aggression should therefore be monitored but in our experience is rarely a significant problem during testosterone replacement producing physiological levels.
Findings that improvements in serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance or glycemic control, in men treated with testosterone are accompanied by reduced measures of central obesity, are in line with other studies showing a specific effect of testosterone in reducing central or visceral obesity (Rebuffe-Scrive et al 1991; Marin, Holmang et al 1992). Furthermore, studies that have shown neutral effects of testosterone on glucose metabolism have not measured (Corrales et al 2004), or shown neutral effects (Lee et al 2005) (Tripathy et al 1998; Bhasin et al 2005) on central obesity. Given the known association of visceral obesity with insulin resistance, it is possible that testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men acts to improve insulin resistance and diabetes through an effect in reducing central obesity. This effect can be explained by the action of testosterone in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and thereby reducing triglyceride uptake into adipocytes (Sorva et al 1988), an action which seems to occur preferentially in visceral fat (Marin et al 1995; Marin et al 1996). Visceral fat is thought to be more responsive to hormonal changes due to a greater concentration of androgen receptors and increased vascularity compared with subcutaneous fat (Bjorntorp 1996). Further explanation of the links between hypogonadism and obesity is offered by the hypogonadal-obesity-adipocytokine cycle hypothesis (see Figure 1). In this model, increases in body fat lead to increases in aromatase levels, in addition to insulin resistance, adverse lipid profiles and increased leptin levels. Increased action of aromatase in metabolizing testosterone to estrogen, reduces testosterone levels which induces further accumulation of visceral fat. Higher leptin levels and possibly other factors, act at the pituitary to suppress gonadotrophin release and exacerbate hypogonadism (Cohen 1999; Kapoor et al 2005). Leptin has also been shown to reduce testosterone secretion from rodent testes in vitro (Tena-Sempere et al 1999). A full review of the relationship between testosterone, insulin resistance and diabetes can be found elsewhere (Kapoor et al 2005; Jones 2007).
Japanese Knotweed (a.k.a Hu Zhang or Polygonum cuspidatum) is highlighted by WebMD as needing more evidence to rate its effectiveness in a number of different areas: like treating constipation and liver or heart disease. They also warn that it can interact poorly with medications that are changed and broken down by the liver, and those that slow blood clotting (anticoagulants and antiplatelets).
Japanese Knotweed (a.k.a Hu Zhang or Polygonum cuspidatum) is highlighted by WebMD as needing more evidence to rate its effectiveness in a number of different areas: like treating constipation and liver or heart disease. They also warn that it can interact poorly with medications that are changed and broken down by the liver, and those that slow blood clotting (anticoagulants and antiplatelets).
Hi.i have a simple question…I AM 60 YEARS OLD and my free testosterone is 7… and my regular testosterone is 700+…I really need TRT …and in case yes i need it the doctor said if i start i need to do it for the rest of my life !!! he said is not coming back!!! ..i don’t know is true or not??? With my testosterone levels i need or not to do TRT???..i am going in gym daily and i feel good in general …all my blood results are perfect …///Again if i take the TRT will help me in general ??or is better to not use the “TRT”..Thank you for your time to answer HONEST for my question ..I ask this because i don’t know what to do ..i don’t want to do something wrong???…!!!..ps .if is possible to answer me on my email ..Thank you v v much and GOD BLESS YOU …Chris…R…
Osteoporosis refers to pathological loss of bone density and strength. It is an important condition due to its prevalence and association with bone fractures; most commonly of the hip, vertebra and forearm. Men are relatively protected from the development of osteoporosis by a higher peak bone mass compared with women (Campion and Maricic 2003). Furthermore, women lose bone at an accelerated rate immediately following the menopause. Nevertheless, men start to lose bone mass during early adult life and experience an increase in the rate of bone loss with age (Scopacasa et al 2002). Women of a given age have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in comparison to men but the prevalence increases with age in both sexes. As a result, men have a lower incidence of osteoporotic fractures than women of a given age but the gap between the sexes narrows with advancing age (Chang et al 2004) and there is evidence that hip fractures in men are associated with greater mortality than in women (Campion and Maricic 2003).
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