Both testosterone and 5α-DHT are metabolized mainly in the liver. Approximately 50% of testosterone is metabolized via conjugation into testosterone glucuronide and to a lesser extent testosterone sulfate by glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. An additional 40% of testosterone is metabolized in equal proportions into the 17-ketosteroids androsterone and etiocholanolone via the combined actions of 5α- and 5β-reductases, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 17β-HSD, in that order. Androsterone and etiocholanolone are then glucuronidated and to a lesser extent sulfated similarly to testosterone. The conjugates of testosterone and its hepatic metabolites are released from the liver into circulation and excreted in the urine and bile. Only a small fraction (2%) of testosterone is excreted unchanged in the urine.
In fact, there is increasing evidence of the potential benefits of testosterone replacement therapy on multiple cardiovascular risk factors. This evidence recently has been comprehensively reviewed by Traish et al. in the Journal of Andrology.16 Although the full effects of testosterone replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk are yet to be established, the balance of emerging evidence from clinical studies suggests that testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men may improve endothelial function, reduce proinflammatory factors, reduce hypertension, and improve the lipid profile.
I highly recommend using a great essential amino acid mix post-exercise in order to boost testosterone. These essential amino acids and especially the concentrated branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine stimulate muscle protein synthesis. Getting these amino acids in the post-workout window dramatically boosts testosterone production (14). I like using our Amino Strong and will often recommend a scoop pre-workout and post-workout for the best muscle building, testosterone boosting benefits.
Before we go any further, know that fenugreek is an herb of Asian origin, commonly used in Indian cuisine. The Indians have been consuming it as an aphrodisiac and an herbal cure-all for centuries which might explain why that waiter in your local Indian restaurant is always smiling. As it turns out, there is actually some validity to the purported claims.
However, studies have found that social success among men is actually linked with high testosterone levels. For example, teenage boys who were perceived as socially adept and dominant had higher levels of testosterone than boys that were low on the totem pole. What’s even more interesting is that this same study found that teenage boys who had a history of being anti-social and displaying high physical aggression were found to have lower testosterone levels at age 13 compared with boys with no history of high physical aggression.
Type 2 diabetes is an important condition in terms of morbidity and mortality, and the prevalence is increasing in the developed and developing world. The prevalence also increases with age. Insulin resistance is a primary pathological feature of type 2 diabetes and predates the onset of diabetes by many years, during which time raised serum insulin levels compensate and maintain normoglycemia. Insulin resistance and/or impaired glucose tolerance are also part of the metabolic syndrome which also comprises an abnormal serum lipid profile, central obesity and hypertension. The metabolic syndrome can be considered to be a pre-diabetic condition and is itself linked to cardiovascular mortality. Table 1 shows the three commonly used definitions of the metabolic syndrome as per WHO, NCEPIII and IDF respectively (WHO 1999; NCEPIII 2001; Zimmet et al 2005).
In my late 20’s, I visited an anti-aging doctor who was one of the pioneers of what we now call functional medicine. I got a full hormone test. Shockingly, my testosterone was lower than my mother’s. No wonder I felt crappy and was overweight. My other sex hormones were out of whack too, especially my estrogen levels. They were high because the little testosterone I did make my body converted into estrogen. I went on a mix of topical replacement testosterone cream, plus small doses of pharmaceuticals like clomid and arimidex in order to keep my other sex hormones functioning properly.
The body’s endocrine system consists of glands that manufacture hormones. The hypothalamus, located in the brain, tells the pituitary gland how much testosterone the body needs. The pituitary gland then sends the message to the testicles. Most testosterone is produced in the testicles, but small amounts come from the adrenal glands, which are located just above the kidneys. In women, the adrenal glands and ovaries produce small amounts of testosterone.
Sportsmen are permitted to use the boosters to trigger the mechanism of testosterone synthesis in the body. These products won a wide popularity among the sportsmen. The matter is that the supplements work by substantially enhancing sports performance, reviving strength, boosting endurance, coping with excessive stress levels, and decreasing time necessary for recovery after exhausting exercises.
Early infancy androgen effects are the least understood. In the first weeks of life for male infants, testosterone levels rise. The levels remain in a pubertal range for a few months, but usually reach the barely detectable levels of childhood by 4–7 months of age. The function of this rise in humans is unknown. It has been theorized that brain masculinization is occurring since no significant changes have been identified in other parts of the body. The male brain is masculinized by the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen, which crosses the blood–brain barrier and enters the male brain, whereas female fetuses have α-fetoprotein, which binds the estrogen so that female brains are not affected.
Tribulus terrestris is an ingredient commonly presented as improving testosterone levels, but has not been found to be more effective than a placebo or possess any testosterone increasing properties. WebMD cautions that it interferes with Lithium and diabetes medications, and in general, not enough is known about tribulus terrestris to recommend a dosage for anyone.