Stored food in glassware and never, ever, ever heated food in plastic containers. Most modern plastics contain phthalates. Phthalates are what give plastic their flexibility, durability, and longevity. But they also screw with hormones by imitating estrogen. Because I didn’t want any of those T-draining molecules in my food, I kept all my food in glassware. I also made sure to never heat food in plastic containers, as heat increases the transfer of phthalates into food.


Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 1 Mar 2019), Cerner Multum™ (updated 1 Mar 2019), Wolters Kluwer™ (updated 28 Feb 2019) and others. Refer to our editorial policy for content sources and attributions.
It’s perhaps no coincidence that Giacomo Casanova, who was said to eat 50 oysters for breakfast each morning, reportedly bed half of Europe. After all, oysters are brimming with zinc, a mineral that elevates testosterone while simultaneously boosting growth factor hormone—both of which enhance muscle growth and physical performance (in and out of the bedroom).

Travison, T. G., Vesper, H. W., Orwoll, E, Wu, F., Kaufman, J. M., Wang, Y., …Bhasin, S. (2017, April1). Harmonized reference ranges for circulating testosterone levels in men of four cohort studies in the United States and Europe. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 102(4), 1161–1173. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/102/4/1161/2884621
There are the testosterone deficiency signs, such as loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, impaired fertility, chronic fatigue, etc. But it’s not always possible to understand which medical condition caused the decrease in testosterone levels. For example, if you always feel exhausted and have no sexual desire, it may provide evidence of depression.

Before taking any supplements, at either end of the spectrum, you need to check whether it’s low testosterone that is actually causing the problem. Taking something that you don’t need could potentially cause irreversible issues. For that reason, steroid hormones like DHEA should never be prescribed without having blood tests first. Roked also recommends regular blood monitoring to make sure you’re taking the correct dosage.


Currently available testosterone preparations in common use include intramuscular injections, subcutaneous pellets, buccal tablets, transdermal gels and patches (see Table 2). Oral testosterone is not widely used. Unmodified testosterone taken orally is largely subject to first-pass metabolism by the liver. Oral doses 100 fold greater than physiological testosterone production can be given to achieve adequate serum levels. Methyl testosterone esters have been associated with hepatotoxicity. There has been some use of testosterone undecanoate, which is an esterified derivative of testosterone that is absorbed via the lymphatic system and bypasses the liver. Unfortunately, it produces unpredictable testosterone levels and increases testosterone levels for only a short period after each oral dose (Schurmeyer et al 1983).
Ginger is considered a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects [1]. Some minor adverse effects such as mild diarrhea have been associated with the use of ginger in humans [19]. Ginger may also cause heartburn and at much higher doses act as a gastric irritant [19]. One study carried out on male diabetic rats concluded that extracts of Zingiber officinale have high safety and intake of Zingiber officinale roots as a drink may be useful for diabetic patients who suffer from sexual impotency [20].

Recently my testosterone level came back at 380. and I am on max dose of 1% 8 pumps per day. The Dr. put me on 1.62% 8 pumps once a day and I will test in a few weeks to see how my level has changed. The issue is I am afraid of is putting 4 pumps a day in each shoulder and upper arm. Has anyone used this much to get there levels up? I am very fit and workout 4 times a week . The other issue is cost because 1.62% is not available 1n generic and cost has skyrocketed.


Smith, R. P., Khanna, A., Coward, R. M., Rajanahally, S., Kovac, J. R., Gonzales, M. A., & Lipshultz, L. I. (2013, September). Factors influencing patient decisions to initiate and discontinue subcutaneous testosterone pellets (Testopel) for treatment of hypogonadism [Abstract]. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(9), 2326–2333. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23859250
If you haven’t hit your twenties yet then you probably can’t imagine losing your interest in sex. I feel you, Holmes.  At 26, I have a healthy appetite now (partially because I consciously work on elevating my T) but it’s nowhere near where it was when I was 17.  I imagine that things will only get worse by the time I’m 35 which is why it’s important to learn what gets your motor firing now.

I am 56 and I have been taking 100 mg of Test Cyp IM once a week for the last 4 months. My total T fluctuates between 500 and 1000 and my E2 has been staying under 30 with the help of Arimidex 0.5 mg every 3.5 days. I do not know what my free T is due to the expense but I feel much better than I did. Not great but much better so I will continue. If you are not feeling good on TRT then you should have your E2 checked because it is probably over 30 which will counteract the effects of your free T.
Sleep apnea is another frequently listed contraindication to testosterone treatment. There have been a few reports of the development, or worsening, of sleep apnea during testosterone therapy (Matsumoto et al 1985) but sleep apnea is actually associated with lower serum testosterone levels (Luboshitzky et al 2002). The reduction in fat mass during treatment with testosterone could potentially be beneficial for sleep apnea, so many specialists will still consider patients for treatment with appropriate monitoring. It is wise to take a clinical history for sleep apnea during testosterone treatment in all men and perform sleep studies in those who develop symptoms.
In males, testosterone is synthesized primarily in Leydig cells. The number of Leydig cells in turn is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In addition, the amount of testosterone produced by existing Leydig cells is under the control of LH, which regulates the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.[132]
I was age 55 with T level at150 so the va doctor started me out on bi weekly 200mg injections.Needless to say it really made me fell young again. My depression seemed to get better my sex life returned had lots of energy lost weight ect.Well i moved to upstate NY and the new doctor said that she was going to discontinue my treatments due to it being addictive drugs?I was in a va 6month rehab treatment for alcohol and opiate addictions.I went down hill very fast with my depression and my ability to focus & concentrate in my daliy functions.I went allmost a yr. before my new doctor found my levels being low and started me back on the injections 200 mg biweekly at the hospital va clinic but due to my addictions wont send me the needles for home use as before.So they gave me andro gel 1 pump daily but after my last visit she doubled the dose to 2 pumps daily and i am starting to feel and look better!I work out 5 days a week very hard in the weight room and have gained some great results in strength and muscle mass.She is going to check my blood work again in 2 months to see if it needs to increase my dose again.Any ways thanks for the best information i have seen so far o this subject.Also the TRT has given me my life back and i am so glad that this was here to help me as i grow old!
This is because your body is really good at self-regulating your hormone levels. So if you have normal testosterone levels, boosting above your natural base level may at best give you a few hours while your body makes, and then immediately processes out, the excess testosterone. This means you might experience higher than your average testosterone levels, but not by much, and only for a little while.
Let’s first start off by saying, there is no comparison of natural testosterone boosters to synthetic.  When referring to synthetic, we’re talking anabolic steroids.  At that point, you’re comparing apples and oranges.  Which is best—natural or synthetic?  Synthetic.  It is much easier to put on quality muscle mass while using anabolics than it is using a natural testosterone booster.  One is basically giving you synthetic testosterone while the other is giving you a minor boost in natural testosterone production.  However, not only are there side effects to the use of anabolics, but they are also illegal in the United States unless used under a doctor’s supervision with a prescription.
Cross-sectional studies have found a positive association between serum testosterone and some measures of cognitive ability in men (Barrett-Connor, Goodman-Gruen et al 1999; Yaffe et al 2002). Longitudinal studies have found that free testosterone levels correlate positively with future cognitive abilities and reduced rate of cognitive decline (Moffat et al 2002) and that, compared with controls, testosterone levels are reduced in men with Alzheimer’s disease at least 10 years prior to diagnosis (Moffat et al 2004). Studies of the effects of induced androgen deficiency in patients with prostate cancer have shown that profoundly lowering testosterone leads to worsening cognitive functions (Almeida et al 2004; Salminen et al 2004) and increased levels of serum amyloid (Gandy et al 2001; Almeida et al 2004), which is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (Parihar and Hemnani 2004). Furthermore, testosterone reduces amyloid-induced hippocampal neurotoxity in vitro (Pike 2001) as well as exhibiting other neuroprotective effects (Pouliot et al 1996). The epidemiological and experimental data propose a potential role of testosterone in protecting cognitive function and preventing Alzheimer’s disease.
This information is not designed to replace a physician's independent judgment about the appropriateness or risks of a procedure for a given patient. Always consult your doctor about your medical conditions. Vertical Health & EndocrineWeb do not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Use of this website is conditional upon your acceptance of our user agreement.
Infertility in men and women Infertility or a couple being unable to conceive a child can cause significant stress and unhappiness. There are numerous reasons for both male and female infertility but many ways in which medical assistance can overcome problems that people may face. Everything concerning infertility is discussed and explained here. Read now
It seems like today it’s a badge of honor to train every day until exhaustion. The ethos is to push yourself harder and harder every day. If that’s your philosophy towards exercise, you might be sabotaging your testosterone levels (as well as your 20 Mile March). Studies have shown that overtraining can reduce testosterone levels significantly. Yes, it’s important to exercise hard, but it’s even more important to give your body rest so it can recuperate from the damage you inflicted upon it.

Stick to protocols that stress large degrees of muscle mass and are moderate- to high-intensity. Additionally, more seasoned gym-goers may want to incorporate forced repetitions periodically into their programs, as testosterone increases have been observed with this type of training.14 Incorporating other post-failure training techniques such as dropsets or partials may similarly be associated with higher T production.
Tarig Elraiyah, Mohamad Bassam Sonbol, Zhen Wang, Tagwa Khairalseed, Noor Asi, Chaitanya Undavalli, Mohammad Nabhan, Osama Altayar, Larry Prokop, Victor M. Montori, Mohammad Hassan Murad; The Benefits and Harms of Systemic Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Postmenopausal Women With Normal Adrenal Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 99, Issue 10, 1 October 2014, Pages 3536–3542, https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-2261
Such sort of injuries varies in severity and extent of damage markedly from one person to the other and withdrawal of the drug/supplement coupled with proper medical attention suffice in terms of alleviating the symptoms.[8,12] This was observed in the present case. However, the liver injury observed here may not be confidently linked to product consumption as the subject later reported that the following recovery he consumed two more courses of the booster with no side effects. Tests performed following hospital discharge, and repeated use of the product showed AST and ALT to be slightly high, whereas the rest of the blood parameters tested appeared to be normal. The AST/ALT ratio is considered to be a very important parameter for the evaluation of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,[13] though it is rarely considered alone. Overall, the evidence was inconclusive in the present work in terms of linking the use of a testosterone booster with liver injury. However, even though a single case report cannot establish causality with statistical power.[13] Further research on the usage of a commercial testosterone booster within large populations for a long period is necessary to investigate whether the symptoms shown in the present case were significantly present in other athletes consuming the same commercial product or not. To guarantee an optimal outcome with no severe side effects, further research is warranted to confirm the present findings and determine whether the effects observed in this case report would be statistically significant in larger samples.
“I'm 55 years old and hitting the ball further than I've ever hit, and I'm not getting tired going 18 holes! And when I play softball I'm hitting the ball further. I work for the DWP in LA and it's a very physically demanding job. Andro400 really helps because we work 16 hour days a lot. I was turning down a lot of overtime, but when I started taking Andro400, it got me through the day. I really notice a difference – even my wife did. It really works!”
TestosteroneTherapy.org Provides Information, News & Reviews regarding Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Men & Women including Testosterone Injections like Depo-Testosterone, Cypionate, Enanthate and Propionate, Steroid Hormone Creams, Androgen Gels, HCG Injections, Estrogen and Progesterone Therapy, Natural Boosters, Supplements and Patches to Regain Energy, Boost Sex Drive, Build Muscle, Lose Weight and Treat Hormonal Imbalance. Visit a Low T Center To Start a TRT Treatment program at a Hormone Clinic for Low T, Andropause, ED (Erectile Dysfunction) or Menopause Symptoms. Anti-Aging Treatment Centers and Hormone Replacement for Men & Women.
How to Get Rid of Loose Skin After Weight Loss The Ultimate Shoulder Workout: The Best Shoulder Exercises for Big Delts The Ultimate Arms Workout: The Best Arm Exercises for Big Guns The Best Chest Workouts for Building Awesome Pecs (According to Science) How to Build Muscle and Lose Fat…at the Same Time The Ultimate Back Workout: The Best Back Exercises for a Thick, Wide Back
Note that DHT is what causes male pattern baldness so it stands to reason that fenugreek may delay the balding process.  A quick Google search of “fenugreek and baldness” reveals that I am not the only genius struck with this idea.  There are sites out there that claim that a fenugreek+saw palmetto concoction or applying a fenugreek paste can help prevent Mr. Cleanitis.
Beast Sports Nutrition - Super Test has all four of our dream ingredients: magnesium, fenugreek, longjack, and zinc. These ingredients have all been demonstrated to help increase natural testosterone levels, with plenty of scientific research to support them (done on humans too, and not just rats). By combining all four ingredients, Super Test has the best chance of helping to increase your testosterone levels, and thereby helping you gain muscle or have a more active sex life.
It seems like today it’s a badge of honor to train every day until exhaustion. The ethos is to push yourself harder and harder every day. If that’s your philosophy towards exercise, you might be sabotaging your testosterone levels (as well as your 20 Mile March). Studies have shown that overtraining can reduce testosterone levels significantly. Yes, it’s important to exercise hard, but it’s even more important to give your body rest so it can recuperate from the damage you inflicted upon it.
Likewise, there are also natural ways to pep up your testosterone through diet, exercise and other lifestyle changes. So if you’re the wrong side of 30 and not feeling as strong in the gym anymore, or if you’re gaining weight where there wasn’t weight before, or if you can't find the energy to finish the day, let alone pleasure your partner, then keep reading — our expert advice may restore you to the peak of masculinity.

Started HRT in my early 50’s as I had all the low-T symptoms and Type 2 Diabetes, which was hammering my body. My total T was about 100 (not sure about Free at that point). First started with Androgel, and was getting decent symptomatic improvement, but didn’t like the residue from the cream, and traveling with the creams was a problem. I’ve gone to pellet implants for the past 7 years. Every 4-5 months, very happy with results to date.

Another way to look at it is like this: Women are only capable of building a small amount of muscle without the use of performance enhancers, regardless of how hard they train or how rigid their meal plan is. When women reach their physical peak and are unable to move any further than that point, it’s because of their naturally low levels of testosterone.


It doesn’t get more natural than getting a good night’s sleep. Research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that lack of sleep can greatly reduce a healthy young man’s testosterone levels. That effect is clear after only one week of reduced sleep. Testosterone levels were particularly low between 2 and 10 p.m. on sleep-restricted days. Study participants also reported a decreased sense of wellbeing as their blood testosterone levels dropped.
Stick to protocols that stress large degrees of muscle mass and are moderate- to high-intensity. Additionally, more seasoned gym-goers may want to incorporate forced repetitions periodically into their programs, as testosterone increases have been observed with this type of training.14 Incorporating other post-failure training techniques such as dropsets or partials may similarly be associated with higher T production.

The fact of the matter is the better quality protein you use the better quality muscle gains you will get. The best thing to combine Advanced BCAA’s is to get our Peptopro or Bio serum 1. This will create a protein powder supplement that is far superior than any protein supplement available today. Essentially you will create a super protein powder. Use with a carb powder like our Oatmuscle to really make a muscle growing protein supplement. Finally combine with Heliogen casein at night and this will give your body a great chance for recovery for the next day ..

These berries are known to improve your overall stamina and mood. But that’s not all, they also keep temperatures in the scrotum at the optimum level. The scrotum contains the testes which produce sperm. Higher temperatures tend to hamper the sperm production and decrease the volume that is released in a man’s ejaculate. They also promote sperm production by improving blood circulation and protecting against free radical damage.


The brain is also affected by this sexual differentiation;[13] the enzyme aromatase converts testosterone into estradiol that is responsible for masculinization of the brain in male mice. In humans, masculinization of the fetal brain appears, by observation of gender preference in patients with congenital diseases of androgen formation or androgen receptor function, to be associated with functional androgen receptors.[99]
6., 7. JK, Udani, George AA, Musthapa M, Pakdaman MN, and Abas A. "Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma Longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 12 Jan. 2014.
Then in 2017, Melville carried out another study on DAA.[4] This time he recruited 22 men in a randomized, double-blind fashion and had them consume either a placebo or 6g of DAA. After 12 weeks of supplementation, researchers observed that DAA had no significant impact on resting levels of either free or total testosterone. Any improvements in strength or hypertrophy were similar to those in the placebo group.
Longjack, also known as Tongkat ali and pasak bumi, is a shrub hailing from Southeast Asia purporting to improve libido. It’s gaining traction in the scientific community for potentially increasing testosterone levels, and researchers at South Africa’s University of the Western Cape found that longjack improved testosterone levels and muscular strength in physically active seniors (a population with typically low testosterone).
Exercise is the original testosterone booster, and it’s one of the most powerful full-body hacks around. Men see a sharp increase in both testosterone and human growth hormone (HGH) after lifting weights, and the boost is greater with shorter rest time between sets (1 minute rest outperforms 3 minutes rest) [9]. With the shorter rest time, women also get a large boost in HGH.
“I did a lot of research on Andro400 before I ordered it because I've tried other products in the past and they haven't worked. But with this I could not believe the difference within, literally within a month. I'm 62 years old and since I started taking it I have lost 37 lbs. And I have more energy than I've had in 20 years. It's still coming off, but it's coming off slower now. It was the belly fat. I could get weight off but I could never get the tummy off, and now the tummy's coming off. Libido -- everything's better all the way around.“
Japanese Knotweed (a.k.a Hu Zhang or Polygonum cuspidatum) is highlighted by WebMD as needing more evidence to rate its effectiveness in a number of different areas: like treating constipation and liver or heart disease. They also warn that it can interact poorly with medications that are changed and broken down by the liver, and those that slow blood clotting (anticoagulants and antiplatelets).
As you can see, the entire workout is only 20 minutes. Twenty minutes! That really is a beautiful thing. And within those 20 minutes, 75 percent of that time is warming up, recovering or cooling down. You're really only working out intensely for four minutes. It's hard to believe if you have never done this that you can actually get that much benefit from four minutes of exercise. That's all it is.

Men can experience a range of symptoms if testosterone decreases more than it should. Low testosterone, or low T, is diagnosed when levels fall below 300 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL). A normal range is typically 300–1000 ng/dL, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. A blood test called a serum testosterone test is used to determine your level of circulating testosterone.


With the ever-increasing interest in IGF-1, a growing number of legal, over-the-counter supplements have emerged which are aimed at amplifying the body’s own supply of this age-reversing hormone. The most common tend to be in the form of deer antler velvet extracts, delivered as a spray, due to the naturally occurring IGF-1 contained in the velvet itself.
And remember, saturated fats work best (along with monounsaturated fats – olive oil, almonds, avocados etc.). In fact higher intakes of polyunsaturated fats (canola oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, margarine etc.) are linked to LOWER testosterone levels (14 & 15). I explore the dangers of PUFA's in a lot more detail in this article - PUFA's: The Worst Thing For Your Health That You Eat Everyday.

In males, testosterone is synthesized primarily in Leydig cells. The number of Leydig cells in turn is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In addition, the amount of testosterone produced by existing Leydig cells is under the control of LH, which regulates the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.[132]
It goes without saying that a healthy diet, quality sleep, productive lifestyle, and regular exercises can contribute to the overall increase of testosterone. However, it is also true that these activities are very often not enough for guys who have the problems with naturally low testosterone levels. This situation also includes people who want to boost their existing testosterone levels.
Fifteen home remedies for acne Many home remedies can help people reduce their acne by treating oily skin, killing bacteria, and providing antioxidants. Natural treatments that reduce acne flare-ups include aloe vera gel, honey, and tea tree oil. Learn about 15 natural home remedies and how to use them to improve acne, pimples, and oily skin here. Read now
The final two studies looked directly at soy vs testosterone levels. The first looked at introducing consumption of soya flour on testosterone levels. They found that those who ate the Soy flour lowered their T levels during the study (43). And the second study looked at the consumption of soy protein isolates (powder) in healthy men. They found that testosterone levels decreased upon consumption of soy powder (45).
Early infancy androgen effects are the least understood. In the first weeks of life for male infants, testosterone levels rise. The levels remain in a pubertal range for a few months, but usually reach the barely detectable levels of childhood by 4–7 months of age.[15][16] The function of this rise in humans is unknown. It has been theorized that brain masculinization is occurring since no significant changes have been identified in other parts of the body.[17] The male brain is masculinized by the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen, which crosses the blood–brain barrier and enters the male brain, whereas female fetuses have α-fetoprotein, which binds the estrogen so that female brains are not affected.[18]
Male sex characteristics greatly depend on testosterone synthesis in your body. If you keep the levels of this hormone normal, you will prevent sexual potency issues. Accordingly, the elevation of testosterone levels helps combat the impairment of erectile function. The levels of this hormone also affect male fertility. If these levels grow, fertility improves. Aging has a negative impact on testosterone secretion. Such hormonal imbalance is inevitable and permanent. But it’s still possible to positively change the situation and stimulate hormone production by using the high-quality testosterone boosters.
And remember, saturated fats work best (along with monounsaturated fats – olive oil, almonds, avocados etc.). In fact higher intakes of polyunsaturated fats (canola oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, margarine etc.) are linked to LOWER testosterone levels (14 & 15). I explore the dangers of PUFA's in a lot more detail in this article - PUFA's: The Worst Thing For Your Health That You Eat Everyday.
Workouts lasting longer than about an hour may begin to spike cortisol levels and subsequently decrease testosterone. Additionally, research has demonstrated that a shorter rest period between sets (1 minute versus 3 minutes) elicited higher acute hormonal responses following a bout of resistance training.11 To maximize your testosterone response, keep your rest periods short and total workout time to 60 minutes or fewer.
   The International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance recently studied tennis players, rugby teams, and wrestlers to find a link between testosterone and competitive outcome. They found that the difference between winning and losing was reflected in testosterone levels! The athletes' own natural testosterone prior to the game was directly related to the outcome after the game -- the higher the testosterone, the more frequently the athlete won.6
Likewise, the amino acids in a protein-rich diet play a big role in both testosterone and muscle growth. As Chris Lockwood, Ph.D., explains, "When combined with training, which increases the sensitivity of androgen receptors, and the consumption of essential amino acids necessary to support protein synthesis, the effects of testosterone on muscle and performance is significantly amplified."[3,4]
For example, testosterone can increase the hematocrit, the percentage of red blood cells in the bloodstream. If the hematocrit goes up too high, we worry about the blood becoming too viscous or thick, possibly predisposing someone to stroke or clotting events. Although, frankly, in a review that I wrote in the New England Journal of Medicine* where we reviewed as much of this as we could, we found no cases of stroke or severe clotting related to testosterone therapy. Nevertheless, the risk exists, so we want to be careful about giving testosterone to men who already have a high hematocrit, such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or those who have a red-blood-cell disorder.
Tongkat ali (a.k.a. Longjack, a.k.a. Eurycoma Longifolia) is a foundational compound of Ayurveda, commonly used as an aphrodisiac. Similar to DHEA, longjack has been found to be effective in both men and women for improving libido, total and free testosterone concentrations as well as muscle mass and strength in men and women! And, unlike many of the other old world herbs commonly touted as natural testosterone boosters, longjack actually has a fair amount of human research denoting its benefits.
An international consensus document was recently published and provides guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men. The diagnosis of LOH requires biochemical and clinical components. Controversy in defining the clinical syndrome continues due to the high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the aging male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Further controversy surrounds setting a lower limit of normal testosterone, the limitations of the commonly available total testosterone result in assessing some patients and the unavailability of reliable measures of bioavailable or free testosterone for general clinical use. As with any clinical intervention testosterone treatment should be judged on a balance of risk versus benefit. The traditional benefits of testosterone on sexual function, mood, strength and quality of life remain the primary goals of treatment but possible beneficial effects on other parameters such as bone density, obesity, insulin resistance and angina are emerging and will be reviewed. Potential concerns regarding the effects of testosterone on prostate disease, aggression and polycythaemia will also be addressed. The options available for treatment have increased in recent years with the availability of a number of testosterone preparations which can reliably produce physiological serum concentrations.
×