I have tried pellets, I went from 5 grams/day gel, to 10 grams, had little change due to work schedule and no energy made it difficult to manage daily. Levels got down to 78 at one point. Testo pellets worked great but it took 10 to make a difference and it brought me up to the 300-400 range. My body rejected 3 pellets and expelled them. Tried axiron, didn’t work, natesto, which the doc never heard off next, a Nasal spray which helped but the bottle ran out 5 days early either by my mistake or dosage problems. Back to 10 grams Testim AG ($360 after deductible) which helps if i could stay consistent but I’m 28. With a job, and health insurance, deductible issues I can not afford 800 dollars a month, 360 after deductible. Recent levels of FSH/LH are .7 and 1.2 (low). Total testosterone 114, free 18.9, and bioavalability at 39.6 (low). I had a MRI of my pituitary gland today, and get results next week. Hoping to start depo T next week as I return to work. If I can recommend anything to anyone, is make sure it’s affordable, you have the time or energy to apply/administer, and understand most people will not understand what you are going through. 2 killers of testosterone are chronic stress and lack of sleep. In 3 years of treatment I wish I came to this man’s article and others and read up prior because I’m on the brink of losing everything I’ve worked for due to hypogonadism. Wish you all results and good health, and thank you for a great article!
Grape seed extract is another ingredient with not enough research to suggest a dosage. Grape seed extract can interact with drugs like “blood thinners, NSAID painkillers (like aspirin, Advil, and Aleve), certain heart medicines, cancer treatments, and others.” If this sounds like you (or if you ever pop an Advil to clear off a headache), you’ll need to speak with a doctor to make sure this supplement is safe to take.

I’m telling you all of this because no matter who you are, keeping your testosterone levels balanced is more important now than ever before. Modern living has not been kind to our hormones. In American men, serum testosterone levels have declined by about 1% each year for the past 30 years [5], and you can make a few educated guesses about why. Hormone-disrupting chemicals are more prevalent than ever before, physical activity is less and less common, veganism is popular (I was a raw vegan for a while), and many doctors insist on pushing a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for health (by the way, the concept of a low-fat diet began in the mid-70s, shortly before the nationwide testosterone decline. It could be a coincidence, but I doubt it).


I started doing prostate biopsies before putting men on testosterone therapy because the fear had always been that a hidden cancer might grow due to increased testosterone. It was also believed that low testosterone was protective. Well, we found prostate cancer in one of the first men with low testosterone we biopsied, even though his PSA level and digital rectal exam (DRE) were normal. As we did more of these, we found more and more cases, about one out of seven, despite normal DRE and normal PSA. When we had data for 77 men and the cancer rate was about the same, 14%, the Journal of the American Medical Association published our findings. At the time, that rate of prostate cancer in men with normal PSA was several times higher than anything published previously, and it approximated the risk of men who had an elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE. That was in 1996.

I have tried pellets, I went from 5 grams/day gel, to 10 grams, had little change due to work schedule and no energy made it difficult to manage daily. Levels got down to 78 at one point. Testo pellets worked great but it took 10 to make a difference and it brought me up to the 300-400 range. My body rejected 3 pellets and expelled them. Tried axiron, didn’t work, natesto, which the doc never heard off next, a Nasal spray which helped but the bottle ran out 5 days early either by my mistake or dosage problems. Back to 10 grams Testim AG ($360 after deductible) which helps if i could stay consistent but I’m 28. With a job, and health insurance, deductible issues I can not afford 800 dollars a month, 360 after deductible. Recent levels of FSH/LH are .7 and 1.2 (low). Total testosterone 114, free 18.9, and bioavalability at 39.6 (low). I had a MRI of my pituitary gland today, and get results next week. Hoping to start depo T next week as I return to work. If I can recommend anything to anyone, is make sure it’s affordable, you have the time or energy to apply/administer, and understand most people will not understand what you are going through. 2 killers of testosterone are chronic stress and lack of sleep. In 3 years of treatment I wish I came to this man’s article and others and read up prior because I’m on the brink of losing everything I’ve worked for due to hypogonadism. Wish you all results and good health, and thank you for a great article!
My genetic make-up is 47XXY. I was diagnosed in September, 1976, and have been on some kind of T-therapy since – injections, pills, gels, patches, pellets, now back on injections. At this time, now, I inject 1/2cc deep IM, every 7-8 days. I suffered a blood clot between my knee and my groin (right leg) in January, 2017. I am now on Eliquis through June, 2017. My blood has always been quick to coagulate. I’ve read through all of this, and only found mention of blood clots sporadically in relation to T-therapy. I’m 70 yoa, have never had a problem before. Can you give me any info I can pass along to my doctor? Thank you.
Test1fy comes in with one of the most unique formulas containing ingredients that not only support testosterone increases and lean mass gains, but also help in increasing hunger making it the perfect addition to anyone’s natural bulking stack. It is overall a well rounded and potent formula making it perfect for anyone, from newbie to the seasoned veteran.
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Epidemiological data has associated low testosterone levels with atherogenic lipid parameters, including lower HDL cholesterol (Lichtenstein et al 1987; Haffner et al 1993; Van Pottelbergh et al 2003) and higher total cholesterol (Haffner et al 1993; Van Pottelbergh et al 2003), LDL cholesterol (Haffner et al 1993) and triglyceride levels (Lichtenstein et al 1987; Haffner et al 1993). Furthermore, these relationships are independent of other factors such as age, obesity and glucose levels (Haffner et al 1993; Van Pottelbergh et al 2003). Interventional trails of testosterone replacement have shown that treatment causes a decrease in total cholesterol. A recent meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials confirmed this and found that the magnitude of changes was larger in trials of patients with lower baseline testosterone levels (Isidori et al 2005). The same meta-analysis found no significant overall change in LDL or HDL cholesterol levels but in trials with baseline testosterone levels greater than 10 nmol/l, there was a small reduction in HDL cholesterol with testosterone treatment.
The participants were seen every 4 weeks. Blood was taken to measure hormone levels, and questionnaires were given to assess physical function, health status, vitality, and sexual function. Body fat and muscle measurements were also taken at the beginning and end of the 16 weeks. The study was funded in part by NIH’s National Institute on Aging (NIA) and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Results appeared in the September 12, 2013, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Men who take Testosterone report a surge in their sex drive and frequency of sex. They are better able to work out, build muscle mass and strength. The fat around their belly melts away as they lose weight and trim their waists. Men who enroll in a comprehensive Testosterone Replacement program which includes diet, nutrition and exercise - feel better, sleep better and look better. They have their edge back along with a restored enthusiasm for daily living, pursuing relationships and living life.
Eggs often come up in reproductive health discussion. This time we’re talking about dietary eggs, as in omelets, and the role they play in boosting testosterone. The hormone boost from eggs comes primarily from the yolks, which are rich in dietary cholesterol, mono- and saturated fats—nutrients once demonized by health experts that have since proven to positively influence waistlines and hormone-health.
ZMA (unnecessary). So when I researched how to increase testosterone, a supplement called ZMA kept popping up. It’s a blend of zinc, magnesium, and vitamin B6. The purported benefits of ZMA include better and deeper sleep which indirectly is supposed to increase testosterone. Zinc and magnesium are necessary minerals in testosterone production, so a mega-dose should be useful, right? Well, no. I bought some and took it during the duration of experiment. I should have done some more research before I made the purchase. While one study in 1998 showed increased strength among athletes taking ZMA, two recent studies (study 1, study 2) have shown that it has absolutely no effect on total or free testosterone levels. Crap. My advice, unless you have a zinc and magnesium deficiency, no need to waste your money on this.
Fatherhood decreases testosterone levels in men, suggesting that the emotions and behavior tied to decreased testosterone promote paternal care. In humans and other species that utilize allomaternal care, paternal investment in offspring is beneficial to said offspring's survival because it allows the parental dyad to raise multiple children simultaneously. This increases the reproductive fitness of the parents, because their offspring are more likely to survive and reproduce. Paternal care increases offspring survival due to increased access to higher quality food and reduced physical and immunological threats.[60] This is particularly beneficial for humans since offspring are dependent on parents for extended periods of time and mothers have relatively short inter-birth intervals.[61] While extent of paternal care varies between cultures, higher investment in direct child care has been seen to be correlated with lower average testosterone levels as well as temporary fluctuations.[62] For instance, fluctuation in testosterone levels when a child is in distress has been found to be indicative of fathering styles. If a father's testosterone levels decrease in response to hearing their baby cry, it is an indication of empathizing with the baby. This is associated with increased nurturing behavior and better outcomes for the infant.[63]

Any supplement can have side effects, and testosterone pills or powder are no exception. Talk to your doctor before beginning any new regimen to be sure it is right for you. Side effects can include sleep apnea, ankle swelling, prostate growth, increased urination, acne, and an increased risk of developing a blood clot, which can be serious or even deadly.
Let me start out by saying that I didn't notice anything for about the first 10 days. After week 2, I had moderate energy increases buy by far the most noticeable difference for me was in the bedroom. After using this product for over a moth now, I normally run out of energy before I run out of "stamina". This will be a permanent regimen for my daily supplements from now on. I take 4 a day. 2 in the morning and 2 about 5pm. I thought about lowering the dosage to see if it had the same effect, but for the price, why? LOL.
In addition to weightlifting, studies have shown that HIIT workouts can also help boost testosterone levels. For those of you who don’t know, HIIT stands for high-intensity interval training. It calls for short, intense bursts of exercise, followed by a less-intense recovery period. You repeat with the intense/less-intense cycle several times throughout the workout. In addition to increasing T, HIIT has been shown to improve athletic conditioning and fat metabolism, as well as increase muscle strength.

I think that the importance of testosterone for cardiovascular health is going to be increasingly recognized. In the past, because men die of heart attacks more often than women and men have more testosterone, the fear has been that testosterone causes heart problems. But every single study of whether testosterone is bad for the heart has been negative, and what people haven’t pointed out in most of those negative studies is that there may be a beneficial effect.
Some anti-aging physicians also use sublingual ( taken under the tongue) forms of non-bioidentical testosterone like oxandrolone. I took oxandrolone with a physician’s guidance for about two weeks, and I got pimples and hair loss. I quit and was bummed that it didn’t generate enough impact to write a blog post about it. I have continued to recommend bioidentical testosterone since.

Testosterone increases the tolerance for risk-taking. Testosterone has a strong link with one’s willingness to take risks. Studies show that men with low levels of power and status, but high levels of T, are motivated to take risks in order to gain status and power. On the other hand, men with high T, who already have power and status, are more risk-averse, because they want to hold on to what they have.
Afrisham, R., Sadejh-Nejadi, S., SoliemaniFar, O., Kooti, W., Ashtary-Larky, D., Alamiri, F., … Khaneh-Keshi, A. (2016, November 24). Salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Psychiatry Investigations, 13(6), 637–643. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5128352/
In fact, studies on vegetarian and low-fat diets both show reduced testosterone levels of about 12 percent. Where higher fat diets of at least 40 percent of calories, with a higher intake of saturated fat, show increased testosterone levels. Why? It’s not rocket science. After all, cholesterol makes up the building blocks from which testosterone is formed; without it, the hormone simply can’t synthesize. Organic eggs are one of the best dietary sources. In addition to essential fatty acids, a whole egg is rich in aspartic acid, an amino acid that triggers production of testosterone.
“I can't tell you how good the product is! I'm in the best shape of my life. I used to take blood pressure medication and I don't even take that anymore. It's changed every aspect of my life. I was a 40 waist and I'm down to a 36. I'm 54 years old, and people tell me I look better than I ever have, and I look like I'm in my early 40s! And I'm telling you it's the Andro. This product is so much better than even the advertisements! From taking Andro400 I immediately notice a burst of energy . . . and my skin color, my sexual advancements, my energy, plus the weight loss, the toning of the body, and the increase strength and endurance . . . it's like night and day where I was then and where I am now, and Andro400 has made the difference. And my wife also takes it, 1 pill every other day, and she has experienced an amazing transformation in her body alone, with her hair, her complexion, and as well as in the gym. It's an outstanding product. My customers, my friends, my family, everybody is noticing the difference!”
“I'm 55 years old and hitting the ball further than I've ever hit, and I'm not getting tired going 18 holes! And when I play softball I'm hitting the ball further. I work for the DWP in LA and it's a very physically demanding job. Andro400 really helps because we work 16 hour days a lot. I was turning down a lot of overtime, but when I started taking Andro400, it got me through the day. I really notice a difference – even my wife did. It really works!”

Testosterone begins with cholesterol. In fact, every single sex hormone you make you synthesize from cholesterol – that’s one reason a “heart healthy” low-fat, low-cholesterol diet limits your performance. Fat and cholesterol don’t make you fat. They give your body the building blocks to create abundant testosterone and other sex hormones, which actually makes you lose weight and build muscle, especially if your current testosterone levels are low [1].
Much like female hormone replacement, you should never, never ever use conjugated equine estrogen and synthetic progestins. Those two coupled together are evil twins. It is not hormone replacement that is the issue in men or women. The issue is the type of hormone used and doctors not knowing what they are doing. I always use bio-identical hormones. Synthetics are not the proper administration of any hormone program.
Clinical trials of the effect of testosterone on glucose metabolism in men have occurred in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. Data specific to aging males is not available. A series of studies investigated the effects of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone given for 6 weeks or 3 months to middle aged, non-diabetic obese men (Marin, Holmang et al 1992; Marin, Krotkiewski et al 1992; Marin et al 1993). It was found that physiological treatment doses led to improved insulin resistance, as measured by the gold standard technique using a euglycemic clamp and/or serum glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance test. These improvements were associated with decreased central obesity, measured by computered tomography (CT) or waist-hip ratio, without reduced total fat mass. Insulin resistance improved more with testosterone than dihydrotestosterone treatment and beneficial effects were greater in men with lower baseline testosterone levels. Increasing testosterone levels into the supraphysiological range lead to decreased glucose tolerance.
I have had BPH for years. Am in early 60s and recently had a 12 site prostate biopsy after a very slow rise of PSA to 4.5 (over a period of 10 years). There were two sites with PIN (one with outpouching and one was focal). Have been on various form of test replacement…changing methods periodically from test cyp IM, or SQ, with and without HCG or HCG alone. I want to continue a very low dose of either HCG or Test Cyp (10-20mg twice/week). What are your thoughts?
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Think: when you were teenager: you were active without thinking of ways to be active. When you start TRT, you want to be mobile/active (maybe again), don’t forget this when you stop TRT. You have to think of ways to incorporate activity into your routine or you get porky.When you cycled, walked everywhere as a teen you did this automatically. Without the hormone stimulus you must use your head and memories of what to do. here’s where the memory issue occurs.
In summary, low testosterone levels are linked to the presence of numerous cardiovascular risk factors. Testosterone treatment acts to improve some of these factors, but effects may vary according to pre- and post-treatment testosterone levels, as well as other factors. There is little data from trials specific to aging males. Appropriately-powered randomized controlled trials, with cardiovascular disease primary endpoints, are needed to clarify the situation, but in the meantime the balance of evidence is that testosterone has either neutral or beneficial effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease in men. It is particularly important to define the effect of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular disease in view of its potential use as an anti-anginal agent.
I am 51 male. I have had low T for a few years now. I was using Testim for a few years, but I hated the smell and mostly feared getting thus stuff on the kids. The reason I stopped with all that nasty gel is because my T levels weren’t improving. So, why bother using anything that is not working, so I stopped. Apparently I am one of those men who do not absorb the gel very well. My T levels dropped from a low of around 200 on a 800+ scale to under 100 after I stopped using the gel.
For this reason, after the 2008 financial market meltdown, some commentators put the blame for the crash on the male-dominated profession, arguing that men take too many risks, and the economy would do better and be more stable if it was run by women. Of course, risk-taking does come with inherent risk, but it has also been responsible for the lion’s share of society’s progress and innovation since the dawn of time. Financial markets would likely not exist – period – without testosterone-driven risk-taking.
NHT works to reach a targeted level of hormones in your body, restoring your body’s natural ability to keep healthy and fit. Hormones are beneficial at any age, but most commonly we administer the therapy to people in their 40’s, when your body naturally begins to slow production of certain hormones. Supplementing these declining hormones can keep your body fit and active for much longer. Bio-identical hormones are made from plants and are identical to the hormones naturally produced by your own body. We never use synthetic hormones, which have been shown to increase your risk of heart disease and diabetes.

With the exception of increasing my fat and cholesterol intake, my diet wasn’t that unconventional. I didn’t follow a strictly low-carb or Paleo diet because recent research has suggested that a diet high in protein and low in carbs actually causes T levels to decrease. With that said, I was judicious with the carbs. I tried to get most of my carbs from veggies and fruit, but I didn’t freak out if my wife made us spaghetti for dinner.
Sleep apnea is another frequently listed contraindication to testosterone treatment. There have been a few reports of the development, or worsening, of sleep apnea during testosterone therapy (Matsumoto et al 1985) but sleep apnea is actually associated with lower serum testosterone levels (Luboshitzky et al 2002). The reduction in fat mass during treatment with testosterone could potentially be beneficial for sleep apnea, so many specialists will still consider patients for treatment with appropriate monitoring. It is wise to take a clinical history for sleep apnea during testosterone treatment in all men and perform sleep studies in those who develop symptoms.
Carbs play a big part in determining your Testosterone levels. Let's start with what to avoid. First, research shows that a large serving of sugar (75g of glucose), decreased Testosterone levels by as much as 25%! (25 & 26). I know this is a pretty extreme dosage, but you may want to avoid massive servings of sugar! Also, men who have Metabolic syndrome have lower Testosterone levels (27). Metabolic syndrome is often brought about by chronic high blood sugar which leads to insulin resistance.
“I'm 55 years old and hitting the ball further than I've ever hit, and I'm not getting tired going 18 holes! And when I play softball I'm hitting the ball further. I work for the DWP in LA and it's a very physically demanding job. Andro400 really helps because we work 16 hour days a lot. I was turning down a lot of overtime, but when I started taking Andro400, it got me through the day. I really notice a difference – even my wife did. It really works!”
If low T is your initial concern, lifestyle changes may help. “Dietary and exercise changes, particularly limiting sugars, especially fructose, eating healthy saturated fats, and engaging in high-intensity exercises may relieve symptoms of low testosterone," Lucille says. "Strength training, reducing stress, and optimizing vitamin D levels can also be very effective at boosting testosterone levels naturally."
The Organon group in the Netherlands were the first to isolate the hormone, identified in a May 1935 paper "On Crystalline Male Hormone from Testicles (Testosterone)".[184] They named the hormone testosterone, from the stems of testicle and sterol, and the suffix of ketone. The structure was worked out by Schering's Adolf Butenandt, at the Chemisches Institut of Technical University in Gdańsk.[185][186]

Most people associate testosterone with facial hair, gigantic muscles & illegal steroids.  Naturally produced testosterone plays a very important role in male/female metabolic function.  Lowered testosterone is a chronic epidemic that is threatening lives all around the world.  This article will go over 12 ways to boost testosterone levels naturally through healthy lifestyle measures.
In this article, testosterone-replacement therapy refers to the treatment of hypogonadism with exogenous testosterone — testosterone that is manufactured outside the body. Depending on the formulation, treatment can cause skin irritation, breast enlargement and tenderness, sleep apnea, acne, reduced sperm count, increased red blood cell count, and other side effects.
We’ll be honest. Testosterone boosters don’t really boost. The best testosterone booster is like taking a multivitamin with extra herbs that might slightly and temporarily increase your testosterone levels. Like all supplements, finding the right testosterone booster means wading into a sea of ingredients, all promising to help. Of 133 testosterone boosters, we found only one with the right ingredients to help raise your testosterone levels: Beast Sports Nutrition - Super Test ($45.88 for 180 capsules, or $2.04 per day).
As with cognitive effects, previous studies examining CVD changes following testosterone treatment have been conflicting and inconclusive. Dr. Budoff and his research team used coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) to assess 138 men, including 73 treated with testosterone and 65 receiving placebo, for changes in coronary artery plaque volume after 1 year.
The research conducted by the American scientists has proven that this plant has a great potential to raise serum lactate, improve sports performance, enhance muscle strength, increase oxygen supply to the body tissues, maintain heart health, boost memory and concentration, restore work capacity, normalize homeostasis, and make the reaction time to a variety of visual and auditory stimuli much longer.3
If you do take DAA I recommend cycling it (i.e. 5 days on, 2 off, over 4 weeks then 4 weeks off). And taking it with an aromatase inhibitor (which ensures the aspartic acid doesn’t get converted to estrogen). Especially as more studies are coming out showing the increase in testosterone is limited to a week or two before it drops back to normal levels.
The other interesting thing about the study: men’s testosterone levels were lowest in March (at the end of winter) and highest in August (at the end of summer). Sunlight affects your vitamin D production, so you have seasonal dips and peaks. Get a blood test to check your levels, and if you’re low, take a high-quality vitamin D3 supplement. If you’re going to take D3, take vitamin K2 and vitamin A with it. The three work in sync, so you want them all to be balanced. Here are my dosage recommendations.
Sleep apnea is another frequently listed contraindication to testosterone treatment. There have been a few reports of the development, or worsening, of sleep apnea during testosterone therapy (Matsumoto et al 1985) but sleep apnea is actually associated with lower serum testosterone levels (Luboshitzky et al 2002). The reduction in fat mass during treatment with testosterone could potentially be beneficial for sleep apnea, so many specialists will still consider patients for treatment with appropriate monitoring. It is wise to take a clinical history for sleep apnea during testosterone treatment in all men and perform sleep studies in those who develop symptoms.
I thought your article was informative if researching effects of testosterone on cardiovascular and urological findings. However, it failed to key in on the psychological effects which cause noted behavioral changes. My husband was diagnosed with mildly low testosterone level and a fatty liver. Upon convincing his NP to put him on the topical gel as a first course of treatment he has stated he feels great, no longer foggy, and energetic like never before. Please understand, he was not having any sexual dysfunction but instead decreased energy and increased fatigue. What I also noticed is that he is now acting more dominant and agressive in his behavior. He speaks with the intent that nothing he says matters to him regardless of bluntness or disrespect. He has requested a divorce after 18 years of marriage without any prior indication that this was his intentions blindsiding our entire family and friend network. He recently got a job promotion since being on testosterone therapy and has a grandiose personal about him. He has lost 22 pounds and has decreased communications and contact with loved ones. He is scheduled to return to practitioner for a refill on his gel prescription and we, his family, are hoping that he may be taken off this medication which has drastically changed the man I have known for nearly 20 years. Unfortunately because he is a pilot and travels frequently we can only hope that he has not allowed his mental alertness spill over into his physical needs and allowed for infidelity to occur as he has changed all personal passwords, eliminated me accesss to flight benefits and checking account. We no longer get his schedule and therefore only await his sporadic call/texts to let us know if his whereabouts. He has developed a despiteful attitude towards me in a matter of 3 weeks which weeks. He has been on this medication for almost one month now. Prior to the medication, all was well and happy. This medication has completely changed our lives in a negative way. Perhaps practitioner need to consider the behavioral outcomes as well especially in men in their 40’s who may also be going through a mid life crisis. Take it from my firsthand experience that it is not been considered thoroughly in his case.
Also, for those with abnormal fatigue. It’s being found too often that hypogonadism is pared with another abnormality of the endocrine system called Hypothyroidism which causes intense fatigue and even alzheimer like cognitive disruption. Both the Testis and Thyroid need to receive signaling hormones from the Pituitary to function correctly and the Pituitary relies heavily on the Hypothalamus. Simple blood tests can check all of those. It is important you find out the reason you have low Testosterone!

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Before a boy is even born, testosterone is working to form male genitals. During puberty, testosterone is responsible for the development of male attributes like a deeper voice, beard, and body hair. It also promotes muscle mass and sex drive. Testosterone production surges during adolescence and peaks in the late teens or early 20s. After age 30, it’s natural for testosterone levels to drop by about one percent each year.

Saw palmetto and testosterone facts Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone. Boosting its levels can have many effects, such as promoting muscle growth and improving libido. Saw palmetto, a plant resembling the leaves of a palm tree, may boost testosterone levels and offer other health benefits. Learn more about saw palmetto and testosterone here. Read now

The body’s endocrine system consists of glands that manufacture hormones. The hypothalamus, located in the brain, tells the pituitary gland how much testosterone the body needs. The pituitary gland then sends the message to the testicles. Most testosterone is produced in the testicles, but small amounts come from the adrenal glands, which are located just above the kidneys. In women, the adrenal glands and ovaries produce small amounts of testosterone.
Present in much greater levels in men than women, testosterone initiates the development of the male internal and external reproductive organs during foetal development and is essential for the production of sperm in adult life. This hormone also signals the body to make new blood cells, ensures that muscles and bones stay strong during and after puberty and enhances libido both in men and women. Testosterone is linked to many of the changes seen in boys during puberty (including an increase in height, body and pubic hair growth, enlargement of the penis, testes and prostate gland, and changes in sexual and aggressive behaviour). It also regulates the secretion of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. To effect these changes, testosterone is often converted into another androgen called dihydrotestosterone. 
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